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SIDNEY I. SMITH, 

New Haven, Conn. 



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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS f OI^ECTIONS. 



227 






ARKANGEMENT 




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OF THE 



FAMILIES OF MOLLUSKS. 



PREPARED FOR THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



BY 



THEODORE GILL, M. D., PH.D. 




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WASHINGTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

FEBRUARY, 1871. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE following list has been prepared by Dr. Theodore Gill, at 
the request of the Smithsonian Institution, for the purpose of 
facilitating the arrangement and classification of the Mollusks 
and Shells of the National Museum ; and as frequent applica- 
tions for such a list have been received by the Institution, it has 
been thought advisable to publish it for more extended use. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary S. I. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

WASHINGTON, January, 1S71 



ACCEPTED FOB PUBLICATION, FEBRUARY 28, 1870. 



( x 
111 ) 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I. INTRODUCTION vii 

II. LIST OF FAMILIES 1 

Sub-Braiich Mollusca vera . . . ... 1 

Class Cephalopoda 1 

Order 1. Dibranchiata 1 

" 2. Tetrabranchiata 2 

Class Gasteropoda, or Cephalophora . .4 

Sub-Class Dioeca 4 

Order 3. Pectinibranchiata .... 4 

" 4. Heteropoda 10 

" 5. Rhipidoglossa ...... 10 

" 6. Docoglossa 11 

" 7. Polyplacophora . . . . .12 

Sub-Class Pulmonifera 12 

Order 8. Pulmonata 12 

Sub-Class Opisthobranchiata 14 

Order 9. Tectibranchiata 14 

" 10. Nudibranchiata . . . . .15 

Sub-Class Pteropoda .17 

Order 11. Tbecosomata ..... 17 

" 12. Gymnosomata 17 

Sub-Class Prosopocephala . . . . . .17 

Order 13. Solenoconchse . . . . .17 

Class Conchifera ........ 18 

Order 14. Dimyaria 18 

" 15. Metarrliiptae 21 

" 16. Heteromyaria 21 



vi 

PAGE 

OrderlV. Monornyaria 21 

" 18. Rudista 22 

Sub-Branch Molluscoidea ....... 23 

Class Tunicata 23 

Order 19. Saccobranchia 23 

" 20. Dactylobranchia 24 

" 21. Taeniobranchia 24 

" 22. Larvalia 24 

Class Brachiopoda .25 

Order 23. Artliropomata 25 

" 24. Lyopomata 20 

Class Polyzoa . 27 

Order 25. Phylactolsemata 27 

" 26. Gymnolseiuata 27 

" 27. Rhabdopleurae 30 

III. LIST OP AUTHORS REFERRED TO 31 

v 

IV. INDEX 45 



INTRODUCTION. 



OBJECTS. 

THE want of a complete and consistent list of the principal 
subdivisions of the mollusks having been experienced for some 
time, and such a list being at length imperatively needed for the 
arrangement of the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, the 
present arrangement has been compiled for that purpose. It must 
be considered simply as a provisional list, embracing the results 
of the most recent and approved researches into the systematic 
relations and anatomy of those animals, but from which innova- 
tions and peculiar views, affecting materially the classification, 
have been excluded. The only merit which is claimed for it is 
the embodiment and co-ordination, it is hoped in a tolerably con- 
sistent form, of the taxonomic results of the information scattered 
through many volumes. There will doubtless be much diversity 
of opinion respecting the relative value of certain groups, as well 
as of the characters themselves whose modifications have been 
used for the limitations of the groups, and the author will not 
disguise that he himself entertains much doubt respecting certain 
groups and relationships preserved in the arrangement. It has 
seemed advisable, however, to provisionally adopt the opinions 
of those who have most thoroughly investigated the different 
groups rather than to introduce innovations based on hypothe- 
tical considerations, and which would be perhaps found to be 
liable to as many objections as those adopted 

But although, from the very nature and extent of the subject, 
the present arrangement is a compilation, it nevertheless is like- 
wise the result of researches undertaken by the author with more 
or less assiduity for a number of years, and, as a whole, it offers 
a considerable number of deviations from any classification 

( Tii ) 



Till 

hitherto submitted. It therefore seems proper, especially in view 
of the fact that this article will have a circulation among many 
persons who are interested in the collection and study of shells, 
but who have never paid especial attention to the principles of 
classification involved in the arrangement of the niollusks, to 
offer a few prefatory remarks on Taxonomy, or the science of 
classification, especially so far as those animals are concerned, 
and to answer the questions that may arise as to why some 
combinations are made. 

PRIMARY DIVISIONS. 

The classes of Mollusks are by no means allied to each other 
in equal degree ; there are two series that differ very widely, and 
which have been regarded by many of the best naturalists as 
primary groups of the animal kingdom ; that is, sub-kingdoms or 
branches. The great majority of the representatives of each 
of such groups do indeed offer so many special characteristics, 
and so widely differ from those of the other series, that perhaps 
the arguments in favor of such a view may be more weighty 
than those for the opposite. But the members of one class 
(Tunicata) seem to be in some respects intermediate or at least 
to narrow the chasm that would otherwise exist between the 
two, although their affinities are not regarded as dubious by most. 

It has been found, after due investigation, that the central 
nervous system offers in its modifications in the Mollusks, as in 
the Vertebrates, the best criteria of relationship, and on the num- 
ber of ganglia have been based the division thereof into the two 
primary groups, MOLLUSCA VERA and MOLLUSCOIDEA ; in the 
former (Mollusca vera), there are three well developed pairs of 
ganglia the cerebral, the pedal, and the so-called branchial (or 
parieto-splanchnic of Huxley) each pair being united by com- 
missures ; in the latter (Molluscoidea), there is but one well de- 
veloped pair, homologous with the pedal ganglia of the true Mol- 
lusks. Prof. Huxley, that very able biologist who has so 
much contributed by his clear mind and convincing logic to the 
education of the younger naturalists of the present day, has well 
remarked on the impossibility, or at least difficulty not yet sur- 
mounted, of the enunciation of a diagnosis which will combine 
the two divisions, and distinguish that combination from others. 



IX 

And that difficulty has been strikingly illustrated by the positive 
withdrawal, by an able naturalist, of at least the Brachiopods 
and Bryozoans from the true Mollusks, and the combination of 
them with the Worms. If, then, a deviation from the example of 
Prof. Huxley and other masters in systematic zoology has been 
ventured in still retaining the combination of the two groups 
under the common branch name of Mollusca, it has been because 
there is still a certain conventional convenience in so doing, and 
because some members of the lower group (the Brachiopods) are 
almost always at least by collectors considered in connection 
with the higher forms. Another and more scientific reason is 
that at the confines of the lower groups, the hiatus between the 
two appears disproportionately little compared to that between 
the other branches, and a stricter series of homologies are 
traceable between the two. PJiodosoma (Schizascus, St.) of the 
Tunicates, and the recently described RhaMopleura, Allmann, 
of the Bryozoans, are especially noticeable in this connection. 
It may also be added that the difficulty of framing a common 
diagnosis for the combined types appears to be the result of the 
diversity of secondary modifications and ramifications, and the 
extreme specialization of some forms and loss of common primi- 
tive characters, rather than of the divergence of the two types 
from a generalized Proto-zoon or aboriginal primordial stock an 
element necessary to be considered in appreciation of the values 
of groups. In such cases, the test .must be a series of consecu- 
tive inductions, and if those can be rigorously established, the 
truth cannot be far distant, even though an exclusive diagnosis 
cannot be applied. Care, however, must be taken not to abuse 
the privilege of combination without exact diagnosis, and the 
same latitude is not allowable in smaller and subordinate groups 
as in the more comprehensive. 

CLASSES. 

With regard to the classes of Mollusks, it is only necessary to 
state that the Pteropods have been considered as a subclass of 
Gasteropods, and thus retained in one and the same class with 
the typical members of the latter, in accordance with the views of 
most American malacologists, and because the hiatus between 

them appears to be much less than that between the Cephalopods 

1 






* ' 






and Gasteropods, and of course between those Odontophorons 
Mollusks and the Conchifers. The Pulmonifers of Cuvier by 
some considered as a class apart and the Solenoconchs by 
some considered as also entitled to classic rank, by others re- 
ferred to the Pteropods, and by others still to the Conchifers 
have also been retained as sub-classes of the Gasteropods. The 
classification thus accepted is then the same as those already 
proposed, in 1861, by Prof. Dana 1 in his "Manual of Geology," 
and, in 1865, by Prof. E. S. Morse in his " Classification of the 
Mollusca based on the principle of cephalization." So far as 
the combination of the Pteropods, Heteropods, and typical Gas- 
teropods into one class, others had also long before indicated the 
propriety of the innovation. The other groups regarded as of 
approximately equal value with those, and therefore designated 
sub-classes, are the Pectinibranchiates and Opisthobranchiates. 

i 

ORDERS. 

Applying to the combinations of the Gasteropods into orders 
the principle that morphology and not teleology is the guide in 
natural classification, it becomes necessary to depart from some 
quite generally accepted schemes, and especially that whereby 
all the air-breathing rnollusks are combined together in contra- 
distinction from those respiring by means of branchiae. As was 
perceived long ago by Cuvier, the inoperculated Pulmonifers 
(except Proserpinidse) are entirely different from the operculated 
ones. That great naturalist very justly retained alone in one 
group the former (the Proserpinidse were unknown to him), and 
thus constituted a truly natural order, while the operculated ones 
(Cyclostomse, etc.) were referred to the Pectinibranchiates, and 
near Littorina, with which the best naturalists still associate them. 
His ignorance of the structure of the Helicinidee induced him to 
retain them near the Cyclostomse, but had he been acquainted 
with tnem, he would doubtless have combined them with his Tro- 
choidea as they now are. The combination of all the Pulmoni- 
ferous Gasteropods into one group, as was afterwards done, was 

1 Prof. Dana has only differed in the depreciation of the value of the 
primary groups, the Mollusca (his ordinary Mollusca) and the Molluscoidea 
(his Antlwid Mollusca) being considered as classes, and their subdivisions 
as orders. 



XI 

a decidedly retrograde step, and thus mqrphology was entirely 
subordinated to teleology, and even to a degree seldom equalled 
in recent times ; for the groups enumerated are so very distinct 
from each other that they have no characters in common except 
those which they share with others as members of the same class, 
and the ability to breathe air direct and even the adaptation for 
the latter office is affected by different modifications in the seve- 
ral subclasses. 

The Heteropods, instead of representing a distinct class or 
subclass, are perhaps scarcely entitled to ordinal rank, but, as 
their distinctive characters are not entirely adaptive, they have 
for the present been accredited with it. Besides the Dentalia (So- 
LENOCONCHA), the Chitonidse (POLYPLACOPHORA) have been re- 
moved from the association with the Palellidse and Acmaeidse, and 
for the last alone has been retained the ordinal name (Doco- 
GLOSSA) proposed by Dr. Troschel for all the groups mentioned. 
It is difficult to understand why the Chitonidx have been so per- 
sistently associated with Patellidse, except for the reason that 
after the first discovery of the homologies between the two types, 
the great differences between them were in a measure lost sight 
of a fault common to discoverers of unexpected relationships 
and that most others .have since been content to accept without 
active thought the approximation at first suggested. The simi- 
larity of the nervous system, recently urged in justification, seems 
to be more superficial than real, and rather the result of adapta- 
tion to the oval depressed form common to both. Although the 
author has been the first to limit (in manuscript long ago pre- 
pared) the order to the families now retained in it, the ordinal 
name proposed by Dr. Troschel (DOCOGLOSSA) being a suggestive 
one, it has been preferred to a new name. 1 

It need only be added that the orders of Conchifers and of all the 
Molluscoids are adopted simply as appearing to be the best that 
have been devised, and not because they are those likely to be 
ultimately confirmed, at least with precisely their present limits. 

1 Mr. W. H. Call, after an extensive study of the anatomy of members 
of the group, had also arrived at the same conclusions, and was the first 
to demonstrate the entire want of affinity therewith of the Gadiniida?. 



Xll 



FAMILIES. 

The author has applied the views of those who consider those 
groups, above the rank of genera, combined by numerous com- 
mon characters, and distinguished from neighboring groups 
by greater or more abrupt differences than those existing within 
the limits of such common associations, to be entitled to 
family rank. In Articulates, Vertebrates, and Radiates, such 
groups are often recognizable externally by a similarity of 
form which is dependent on more or less decided modifi- 
cations of structure, or the relations between different parts. 
Very often, however and especially in the Batrachians such 
indications fail, and in the Mollusks there are many families that 
do not differ from each other in form ; and, on the other hand, 
others exhibit a very considerable difference of form among their 
own representatives. Accepting the views as to the application 
of the term family to groups as adopted by the students of Mam- 
mals, we must apply them as we best can to the Mollusks, and 
of course we must be prepared for considerable diversity of views 
in the application, dependent on the personality of the observer, 
his acquaintance with the groups, and the path by which he has 
approached the study. 

Tery many, and probably most of the families now adopted, 
require revision based on more extensive materials than have 
yet been available to any one investigator. If any are to be 
especially pointed out in this connection, those of the orders 
of Cephalopods, and among the Gasteropods, the TurMnellidde* 
Pupinidae, and the sub-divisions of the disintegrated Helicidse, 
Melaniidee, Cerithacea, and Trochacea, may be indicated. But, 
because their affinities are doubtful, they have been for the present 
retained, for it is believed that the evils resulting from hetero- 
geneous combinations (not definable by diagnosis) is greater than 
those resulting from refinement of analysis. 

The acquaintance of the author with the Polyzoa being ex- 

1 The Turbtnellidce are retained as distinct on the authority of a very 
distinguished naturalist, who has kindly informed me that they are 
"Stromboidce." I have not ventured to separate them, however, farther 
from the Cynodontidce till more is known. 



Xlll 



tremely limited, he has adopted without modification the classifi- 
cation of Bronn (who has availed himself of all the information 
published up to his time), except for the Phylactolsemata, for 
which he has followed Prof. Hyatt, who has since thoroughly- 
studied that order. 

The details of classification of the families are yet too unsettled 
to warrant the retention of the many sub-families which have 
been proposed, and while the necessity for the adoption of such 
subordinate groups is readily foreseen and admitted, so few 
have been characterized in a manner which could be maintained 
against criticism or justified by valid arguments, that only in 
exceptional cases have any been admitted. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

In this connection it may be remarked that there is no scientific 
basis for an a priori assumption that because the modifications 
of an organ are of a certain importance in one branch or class 
of animals, they are so in others. While such hints may perhaps 
be of some use, the value requires to be verified in each instance. 
Because the modifications in structure of the heart in mammals, 
birds, and reptiles are of prime importance, it does not follow 
that they are equally so in batrachians and fishes, and such a view- 
is, indeed, opposed to facts. Still less foundation exists for the 
a priori application of such ideas to the classification of the 
mollusks ; and their distribution into two series, distinguished by 
the bilocular (Monotocardian) and trilocular (Diocorclian) par- 
tition of the heart, certainly seems to be opposed by the indica- 
tions furnished by the sum total of the organization. 

And in like manner, because the modifications of a certain part 
are the best indexes of affinity in one group of a class, it does 
not follow that even in the same class, in another group, analo- 
gous modifications are of like value. The dentition, for example, 
is quite characteristic in the mammalian orders Carnivores, 
Ungulates, and Rodents ; but in the Implacentals the value of 
analogous modifications is very much less, and, within the range 
of the same order (Marsupials), superficial differences, apparently 
at least, as great as those between the cited orders of Placen- 
tals are found. If, therefore, the modifications of the dentition 
are used for the distinction of orders in one case, it is not because 



XIV 

the dentition is the most important per se, but because, as a 
matter of fact and experience, it has been determined that the 
modifications thereof are the co-ordinates of corresponding, though 
perhaps not as readily recognizable, modifications of other parts, 
and being so, they are taken advantage of for diagnostic purposes. 

In like manner, as a matter of experience, the groups of the 
Pectinibranchiate mollusks agreeing in the dentition of the 
radula appear to agree in other important respects, and there- 
fore the modifications of the teeth of the radula have been made 
use of as the prime characters, because they appear to be the 
exponents of the sum total of structure, and until it is shown, 
by a study and co-ordination of the modifications of the entire 
structure, that there are other characteristics that are of more 
importance and better indexes of affinity, and the application has 
been actually made, it is not evident what other better combina- 
tions capable of demonstration and diagnosis the true criteria 
can be made. Undoubtedly we have much yet to learn concern- 
ing the affinities of all the mollusks, and undoubtedly very con- 
siderable, and perhaps fundamental, modifications of classification 
will be required ; but, in addition to objections against a given 
system, suggestions for reform are at the same time desirable, 
and then a comparison of the respective merits of the competing 
systems can be instituted. 

As it is evident that the differences of dentition in the Placen- 
tal and Implacental mammals is of very unequal value, it is no 
more than might be expected that the dentition in the class of 
Gasteropods should also vary in value, and it is actually found 
that while in the Pectinibranchiates the dentition is an excellent 
index of affinities, it is not so in the Tectibranchiates or Nudi- 
branchiates. In this admitted fact, however, there is no more 
valid argument against its value in the Pectinibranchiates than 
in the corresponding case in mammals. 

EXTINCT FORMS. 

With respect to the extinct forms, the compiler has deemed it 
advisable to accept the views of the most approved students of 
the groups as to their relations, but has felt obliged to apply to 
them that indefinite but generally appreciated standard of value 
which has been used for the living forms, and consequently the 



XV 

number of extinct families admitted is larger than is generally 
recognized, especially in the class of Cephalopods. The views 
of M. Barrande have been implicitly accepted in the arrange- 
ment of the families of Tetrabranchiates, save as to the value of 
the groups. M. Barrande has designated the Mollusca as a 
class, the Cephalopoda as an order of that class, and has sub- 
divided the latter into three families, each comprising a greater 
or less number of genera. The standard of value applied by 
that learned naturalist is in each case, but especially in the appre- 
ciation of the major groups, very different from that almost uni- 
versally current, and as the more comprehensive groups are 
here retained with the higher rank generally accredited to them, 
the genera are also raised to a more elevated rank : the views of 
M. Barrande concerning the range of his genera being provision- 
ally accepted, they are each one raised to family rank, and 
although the author is disposed to dissent from the positions 
assumed by M. Barrande in respect to the affinities and extent 
or relative value of certain of his genera, his knowledge of those 
forms is so vastly inferior to that naturalist's, that he has not 
ventured in any case to depart from him, even when he would 
have simply accepted the views of others, for none have had such 
opportunities for study, or made such good use of them, as he. 
As the expediency of the extension of family rank to some of 
the forms may be questioned, it may be remarked that the ten- 
dency of some naturalists seems to be to even subdivide still 
more minutely, Prof. Agassiz and Prof. Hyatt, for example, dif- 
ferentiating the genus Ammonites of most authors into a number 
of families, and separating ordinally the "Ammonoids" from the 
Nautilidae. 

In addition to the numerous extinct types of the Cephalopods, 
there are undoubtedly many among the Gasteropods and Con- 
chifers that are entitled to family rank ; but in view of the 
inability of the author to study many of them, and of our igno- 
rance of their relations, it has been deemed inadvisable to name 
thenii 

SYNONYMY. 

In order to make known the extent of the families adopted, 
as well as to direct students to reliable sources of information, 
reference has been made to a specific authority for each family. 



XVI 

It has been deemed preferable, however, ail other things being 
equal, to refer to some readily accessible and popular work. But 
in cases where such works do not give the limits to the families 
which have been indicated by the most approved researches, 
references are made to the monographs or other publications 
wherein the information is furnished. Some of the families, 
however, have not yet been assigned the limits which, in the 
opinion of the compiler, appear the most natural ; in order, 
therefore, to indicate as nearly as possible the relative values of 
the respective groups, the system of notation recommended espe- 
cially by the late Hugh Strickland has been adopted. When 
there is an exact equivalency, either as to the limits assigned by 
the diagnosis, or as to the contents, the sign of equality ( = ) is 
used ; when the group referred to is larger than that adopted, 
the corresponding sign (<) is prefixed to the former; when the 
group referred to is smaller, the usual sign indicative thereof 
( > ) is prefixed ; and when the group referred to is entirely 
different, including some forms not in and excluding others re- 
tained in the group compared with it, the sign ( x ) is employed 
as a prefix. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

In the appended list of authorities, and in connection with the 
names of the families, will be found the references to those 
authors who have been followed in especial cases. The compiler 
would also especially acknowledge his obligations to Mr. W. H. 
Dall for various kind offices and assistance in the preparation of 
this list. 



OF 



FAMILIES OF MOLLUSKS. 

[Adopted provisionally by the Smithsonian Institution.] 
N. B. The Fossil Families are in Italics. 



CLASS A. CEPHALOPODA. 

ORDER L DIBRANCHIATA. 

SUB-ORDER OCTOPODA. 
(0. littorales.} 

1. Cirrhoteuthidae < Octopodidae, Ad. I, 18. 

2. Octopodidae < Octopodidae, Ad. I 7 18. 

(0. pelagid.) 

3. Philonexidae = Philonexidae, Ad. I, 21. 

4. Argonautidae = Argonautidae, Ad. I, 23. 

SUB-ORDER SEPIOPHORA. 

(Oigopsidae.) 

( Cranchiidae, Ad. I, 26. 

5. Cranchiidae K _ ,. ., , _ orr 

( Loligopsidae, Ad. I, 27. 

6. Chiroteuthidae = Chiroteuthidae, Ad. I, 28. 

7. Onychoteuthidae < Onychoteuthidae, Ad. I, 30. 

8. Ommastrephidae < Onychoteuthidae, Ad. I, 30. 



(Myopsidae.) 

9. Loliginidae < Loliginidae, Ad. I, 35. 

10. Sepiolidae < Loliginidae, Ad. I, 41. 

11. Sepiidae = Sepiidae, Ad. I, 41. 

12. Belosepiidae < Sepiidae, Chenu I, 46. 
IB. Spirulidae = Spirulidae, Ad. I, 44. 

14. Belopteridae < Spirulidae, Chenu I, 51. 

15. Belemnitidae = Belemnitidae, Chenu I, 46. 

ORDER IL TETRABRANCHIATA. 

(Nautiloidea.) 

# 

16. NotJioceratidae = Nothoceras, Barr. II, 72. 

17. Batlimoceratidae = Batlimoceras, Barr. II, 74. 

* 

18. Troclioceratidae = Troclioceras, Barr. II, 74. 

# 

19. Nautilidae = Nautilus, Barr. II, 128. 

20. Hercoceratidae = Hercoceras, Barr. II, 152. 

21. Gyroceratidae = Gyroceras, Barr. II, 156. 

22. Litidtidae = Lituites, Barr. II, 168. 

23. Phragmoceratidae= Phragmoceras, B. II, 189. 

24. Gomplioceratidae = Gomphocems, B. II, 243. 

25. Cyrtoceratidae = Cyrtoceras, Chenu I, 73. 

26. Orthoceratidae > Orthoceras, Chenu I, 59. 



27. Ascoceratidae 



Ascoceras, Barr. II, 334. 
AphragmiteSj Barr. II, 366, 
Glossoceras, Barr. II, 372. 



28. Clyineniidae 

29. Goniatitidae 

30. Bactritidae 



31. TiirriUtidae 



(Goniatitoidea.] 

= Clymenidae, Chenu I, 70. 
= Goniatites, Chenu I, 75. 
= JBactrites, Chenu I, 77. 

(Ammonitoidea.} 

TurriliteSj Chenu I, 95. 
HdicoceraS) Chenu I, 96. 
Heteroceras, Chenu I, 96. 



32. Ceratitidae 

33. Ammonitidae 

34. Scaphitidae 

35 . Crioceratidac 

36. Ancyloceratidae 

37. Hamitidae 

38. Ptychoceratidae 

39. Hamidinidae 

40 . Toxoceratidae 

41. Baculitidae 

42. Baculinidae 



CeratiteSj Chenu I, 76. 
Ammonites, Chenu I, 77. 
ScaphiteSj Chenu I, 91. 
Crioceras, Chenu I, 90. 
Ancyloceras, Chenu I, 92, 
Hamites, Chenu I, 93. 
PtyclioceraSj Chenu I, 94. 
Haimdina, Chenu I, 94. 
Toxoceras, Chenu I, 93. 

Baculites, Chenu I 7 95. 
Hacidina, Chenu I 7 77. 



















CLASS B. GASTEROPODA. 
SUB-CLASS DICECA. 

ORDER III. PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

SUB-ORDER TOXOGLOSSA. 

43. Conidae = Conoidea, Tr. 16. 

44. Pleurotomidae Pleurotomacea, Tr. II, 38. 

45. Melatomidae = Clionellidae, Stra. A. J. C. 

1865, 62. 

46. Haliidae = Haliacea, Tr. II, 36. 

47. Terebridae == Terebracea, Tr. II, 27. 

48. Cancellariidae = Cancellariacea, Tr. II, 45. 

49. Admetidae = Admetacea, Tr. II, 46. 

SUB-ORDER RHACHIGLOSSA. 
(Typica.) 

50. Cystiscidae Cystiscidae, Stm. A. J.C.I 865, 

55. 

51. Marginellidae < Marginellacea, Tr. II, 57. 

52. Volutidae = Volutacea, Tr. II, 54. 

( Yolutomitrina, Gray, 36. 

a. Volutomitrinae . 1 

( Amoriana, Gray, oo. 

( Volutina, Gray, 32. 

b. Volutinae i ^ r ,. 

( Yetma, Gray, 62. 



(Odontoglossa.) 

53. Fasciolariidae = Fasciolariacea, Tr. II, 60. 

a. Fusinae 

b. Fasciolariinae 

54:. Mitridae = Mitracea, Tr. II, 66. 

A- 

(Duploliamata.} 

55. Melongenidae = Cassidulina, Tr. II, 79. 

56. Buccinidae < Fusacea, Tr. II, 69. 

a. Photinae = Photina, Tr. II, 82. 

b. Buccininae = Buccinina, Tr. II, 69. 

c. Chrysodominae = Neptunina, Tr. II, 72. 

57. Nassidae = Nassacea, Tr. II, 87. 

a. Cyclonassinae 

t> 

b. Nassininae 

58. Cynodontidae < Fusacea, Tr. II, 69. 

a. Cynodontinae = Yasina, Tr. II, 84. 

b. Imbricariinae = Imbricariina, Tr. II, 86. 
?59. Turbinellidae < Yasidae, Ad. I, 155. 

(Hamiglossa.) 

60. Turridae = Strigatellacea, Tr. II, 202. 

61. Olividae = Olivacea, Tr. II, 105. 

a. Olivinae = Dactylina, Tr. II, 107. 

b. Olivellinae = Olivellina, Tr. II, 110. 

c. Ancillinae = Ancillina, Tr. II, 111. 

62. Harpidae = Harpacea, Tr. II, 104. 



6 

63. Ptychatractidae = Ptyckatractidae, Stm. A. J. C. 

1865, 59. 

64. Muricidae 

a. Muricinae = Muricea, Tr. II, 112. 

b. Purpurinae = Purpuracea, Tr. II, 124. 

(Atypoglossa.) 

65. Colurabellidae = Colurubellacea, Tr. II, 97. 

SUB-ORDER T^ENIOGLOSSA. 

*' i ii "Ti>B^p 

GROUP ROSTRIFERA. 

66. Pomatiidae = Poinatiacea, Tr. I, 65. 

67. Cyclostomidae = Cyclostomacea, Tr. I, 68. 

a. Licineinae = Licinea, Pfr. Pneum. 

b. Cistulinae = Cistulea, Pfr. Pneum. 

c. Cyclostominae = Cyclostoniea, Pfr. Pneum. 

68. Cyclophoridae = Cyclotacea, Tr. I, 66. 

a. Cyclotinae = Cyclotea, Pfr. Pneum. 

b. Cyclophorinae = Cyclophorea, Pfr. Pneuin. 

69. Pupinidae 

a. Pupininae = Pupinea, Pfr. Pneum. 

b. Diplommatininae Diplommatinacea, Pfr. Pneum. 

# 

70. Aciculidae = Aciculacea, Tr. I, 65. 

71. Truncatellidae = Truncatellacea, Tr. I, 85. 

# 

72. Ampullariidae = Ampullariacea, Tr. I, 86. 

* 

73. Yalvatidae = Yalvatae, Tr. I, 95. 



74. Viviparidae 

a. Lioplacinae 

b. Yiviparinae 

75. Assiminiidae 

76. Eissoellidae 

77. Poinatiopsidae 

78. Eissoidae 

a. Amnicolinae 

b. Eissoinae 

c. Eissoininae 

79. Skeneidae 

80. Bytliiniidae 

81. Fossaridae 

82. Littorinidae 

a. Lacuninae 

b. Littorininae 

83. Pvramidellidae 

/ 

84. Euliniidae 



= Viviparidae, Gill. P. A. N. S. P. 

1863, 33. 

= Lioplaces, Gill, P. A. P. '63. 
= Vivipari, Gill, P. A. P. '63. 

< Assiminiidae, Ad. II, 314. 
= Eissoellidae, Ad. I, 325. 

= Pomatiopsinae, Stm. Hydr. 
4, 29-36. 

< Eissoidae, Stm. Hydr. 3. 

= Hydrobiinae, Stm. Hydr. 5. 

= Eissoinae, Stm. Hydr. 5. 

= Eissoininae, Stm. Hydr. 5. 

= Skeneinae, Stm. Hydr. 5. 

= Bythiniinae, Stm. Hydr. 5. 
= Fossari, Tr. I, 153. 
> Littorinae, Tr. I, 129. 




Pyramidellidae, Ad. I, 228. 
Eulimidfie, Ad. I, 235. 



85. Styliferidae = Styliferidae, Ad. I, 238. 



86. Ceriphasiidae == Strepomatidae, Tr'n A. J. C. 

1865. 

87. Melanopidae = Pachycheili, Tr. I, 113. 

88. Melaniidae 



8 

a. Mclaniinae = Mclaniae, Tr. I, 121. * : i 

b. Tiarinae = Thiarac, Tr. I, 112. 

c. Paludominae 

89. Ccrithiopsidae < Cerithia, Tr. I, 139. 

90. Cerithiidae < Cerithiacea, Tr. I, 138. 

a. Cerithiinae < Cerithia, Tr. I, 139. 

b. Potamidinae = Potamides, Tr. I, 145. 

91. Planaxidae < Planaxes, Tr. I, 149. 

92. Caecidae = Caecidae, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1858, 

413. 

93. Yermetidae < Vermetacea, Mch.P.Z.S. 1861, 

1862. 

94. Tenagodidae < Vermetacea, Mch. P. Z. S. 1861, 

1862. 

95. Turritellidae = Turritellae, Tr. I, 152. 

96. Trichotropidae = Trichotropidae, Tr. I, 164. 

* 

97. Hipponicidae = Hipponicidae, Tr. I, 162. 

98. Capulidae < Capulacea, Tr. I, 156. $ 

99. Calyptriidae = Calyptrseidae,Gray,P.Z.S.'67, 

726. 

100. Neritopsidae * Neritopsidae, Gray 51. 

101. Onustidae = Onustidae, Tr. I, 190. 

102. Strombidae = Alata, Tr. I, 191. 

a. Strombinae = Strombinae, Gill, A. J. C. 

1870 



9 

b. Seraphyinae = Seraphyinae, Gill, A. J. C. 

1870. 

103. Aporrhaidae = Aporrhaidae, Tr. I, 199. 

(Diffitiglossa.) 

104. Pediculariidae = Pediculariacea, Tr. I, 189. 

105. Amphiperasidae= Ainphiperasidae, Tr. I, 216, 

ROSTRUM WITH IXTERTIBLE TIP. 

106. Cypraeidae = Cypraeaeea, Tr. I, 201. 

a. Cypraeinae 

b. Pustulariinae 

107. Triviidae = Triviacea, Tr. I, 214. 

a. Triviinae 

b. Eratoinae 

* 

108. Marseniidae = Marseniidae, Tr. I, 185. 

109. Velutinidae = Velutinidae, Tr. I, 165. 

110. Naticidae = Naticacea, Tr. I, 169. 

GROUP PROBOSCIDIFERA. 

\ 

111. Pyrulidae = Sycotypidae, Tr. I, 238. 

112. Doliidae = Doliacea, Tr. I, 224. / 

113. Cassididae = Cassidea, Tr. I, 220. ? 

114. Ranellidae = Ranellacea, Tr. I, 227. 

115. Tritonidae = Tritoniacea, Tr. I, 231. 



10 

SUB-ORDER PTENOGLOSSA. 

116. lanthinidae = lanthinidae, Gray, Guide, 53. 

117. Solariidae = Architectonidae, Gray, Guide, 

62. 

118. Scalariidae = Scalariadae, Gray, Guide, 52. 

ORDER IV. HETEROPODA. 

119. Atlantidae = Atlantacea, Tr. I, 41. 

120. Carinariidae = Carinariacea, Tr. I, 42. 

121. Pterotrachaei- = Firolacea, Tr. I, 43. 

dae 

ORDER V. RHIPHIDOGLOSSA. 

SUB-ORDER PODOPHTHALMA. 
(Pseudobrancliia.] 

122. Hydrocaenidae = Hydrocaenacea, Tr. I, 83. 

123. Stoastomidae = Stoastomidae, Chitty, P. Z. S. 

1857, 162. 

124. Helicinidae = Helicinacea, Tr. I, 75. 

125. Proserpinidae = Proserpinacea, Tr. I, 84. 

(Neritacea.) 

126. Neritidae = Neritinidae, Gray, 136. 

(Trochacea.) 

127. Rotellidae = Rotelladae, Gray, 139. 

128. Turbinidae = Turbinidae, Gray, 141. 

129. Liotiidae = Liotiadae, Gray, 146. 



11 

130. Trochidae = Trochidae, Gray, 147. 

131. Stomatellidae = Stoinatellidae, Gray, 158. 

(Pleurotomariacea ?) 

132. Pleurotomarii- < Pleurotomaridae, Br. Kef. Th. 

dae III, 1037. 

133. Scissurellidae = Seissurellidae, Gray, 160. 



/\ 



(Haliotaeea.) 
134. Haliotidae = Haliotidae, Gray, 161. 



(Maduraeacea.) 

135. Maduraeidae = Madureadae, Cpr., Lect. 68. 

SUB-ORDER DICRANOBRANCHIA. 
(Fissurellacea.) 

136. Fissurellidae < Fissurellidae, Gray, 162. 

137. Ernarginulidae < Fissurellidae, Gray, 162. 




(Better opli ontaeea . ) 

138. Belleropliontidae = Betterophontidae, Meek, P. C. 

A. S., I, 9. 

ORDER YL DOCOGLOSSA. 

SUB-ORDER PROTEOBRANCHIA. 

139. Acrnaeidae = Acmaeidae, Ball, A. J. C. 1870. 

140. Patellidae = Patellidae, Dall, A. J. C. 1870. 



12 

SUB-ORDER ABRANCHIA. 

141. Lepetidae = Lepetidae, Ball, A. J. C. 1869, 

140. 

ORDER YIL POLYPLACOPHORA. 

142. Chitonidae < Chitonidae, Gray, 177. 

143. Chitonellidae < Chitonidae, Gray, 177. 



SUB-CLASS PULMONIFERA. 

ORDER VIII. PULMONATA. 

SUB-ORDER GEOPHILA. 

( Oculiferous tentacles invertible.) 

(Agnatlia.] 

144. Oleacinidae < Testacellea, Alb. Mart. 22. 

145. Streptaxidae = Streptaxidae, Gray, A.M. N.H. 

VI, 1860, 268. 

146. Testacellidae < Testacellea, Alb. Mart. 22. 



(Goniognatha.} 

147. Orthalicidae = Orthalicea, Alb. Mart. 209. 

(Holognatha.) 

148. Cylindrellidae = Cylindrellidae, Or. & F., J. 0. 

1870, 5. 

149. Pupidae < Pupacea, Alb. Mart. 228. 



13 

150. Helicidae < Helicacea, Alb. Mart. 80. 

151. Vitrinidae == Vitrinea, Alb. Mart. 43. 

(Togata.} 

152. Philomycidae = Philomycenidae,Gray,A.M.N'. 

H. VI, I860, 269. 

(Sitbnuda.) 

153. Cryptellidae = Cryptellidae, Gray, A. M. NML 

VI, 1860, 269. 

154. Parmacellidae = Parmacellidae, Gray, A. M. 

H. VI, 1860, 268. 
# 

155. Limacidae < Limacidae, Ad. II, 217. 

156. Arionidae = Arionidae, Ad. II, 227. 

(Elasmognatha.) 

157. Succinidae = Succinea, Alb. Mart. 308, 

158. Janellidae = Janellidae, Ad. II, 227. 

(OciMferous tentacles simply contractile.} 

159. Vaginulidae .== Veronicellidae, Ad. II, 231. 

160. Onchidiidae = Onchidiidae, Ad. II, 232. 



SUB-OKDER BASOMMATOPHOKA. 
(Limnopliila.) 

161. Chilinidae = Chilinidae, Ball, A. L. N. Y. 

IX, 357, 1870. 

162. Physidae = Physidae, Dall, A. L. N. Y. 

IX, 355, 1870, 



14 

163. Ancylidae = Ancylidac, Dall, A. L. N. Y. 

IX, 354, 1870. 

164. Liinnaeidae = Liinnaeidae, Dall, A..L. N. Y. 

IX, 348, 1870. 
# 

165. Otinidae = Otininae, Ad. I, 249. 

166. Auriculidae = Ellobiinae, Ad. I, 236. 

(Petrophila.} 

167. Siphonariidae = Siphonariidae, Dall, A. J. C. 

1870, 8. 

168. Gadiniidae = Gadiniidae, Dall, A.J.C.1870, 

30. 

(Thcdassophila.) 

169. Amphibolidae = Amphibolidae, Ad. II, 268. 



SUB-CLASS OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

ORDER IX. TECTIBRANCHIATA. 

A 

170. Philinidae < Philinidae, Gray, 191. 

171. Amphyspiridae = Ampjiyspiradae, Gray, 194. 

1* 

** 

172. Ringiculidae = Eingiculidae, Meek, C. L. I. F. 

N. A., Cret., 16, 34. 

173. Actaeonidae < Actaeonidae, Meek, Sill. J. 

XXXV, 84. 



15 

174. Adaeonellidae < Adaeonidae, Meek, Sill. J. 

XXXV, 84. 
# 

175. Cylichnidae = Bullinadae, Gray, 195. 

# 

176. Bullidae = Bullidae, Gray, 196. 

177. Amplustridae = Amplustridae, Gray, 197. 

# 

178. Lophocercidae = Lophocercidae, Gray, 201. 

179. Aplysiidae = Aplysiadae, Gray, 198. 

B. 

180. Runcinidae = Runcinadae, Gray, 204. 

* 

181. Tylodinidae Tylodinadae, Gray, 203. 

182. Umbrellidae = Unibrelladae, Gray, 204. 

183. Pleurobranchii- 

dae = Pleurobranchidae, Gray, 201. 

ORDER X. NUDffiRANCHIATA. 

SUB-ORDER PYGOBRANCHIA. 

184. Doridopsidae = Doridopsidae, A. & H., T. Z. S. 

1864, 124. 
# 

185. Dorididae = Doriclidae, Gray, 208. 

186. Onchidorididae Onchidoridae, Gray, 206. 

# 

187. Goniodorididae = Goniodoridae, Gray, 211. 

188. Polyceridae < Polyceraclae, Gray, 213. 

189. Triopidae > Triopidae, Gray, 214. 

190. Ceratosomidae = Ceratosomidae, Gray, 215. 



16 

SUB-ORDER POLYBRANCHIA. 

(Inferobrancliia. ) 

191. Phyllidiidae = Phyllidiadae, Gray, 216. 

192. Diphyllidiidae = Diphyllidiadae, Gray, 216. 

(Polybranchia.) 

193. Tritoniidae = Tritoniadae, Gray, 217. 

194. Scyllaeidae = Scyllaeidae, Gray, 218. 

( Ceratobrancliia.) 

(Section 1.) 

(A.) 

195. Dendronotidae = Dendronotidae, Gray, 219. 

196. Heroidae Heroidae, Gray, 221. 

197. Tethyidae = Tethyadae, Gray, 219. 

198. Dotoidae = Dotonidae, Gray, 222. 

199. Proctonotidae = Proctonotidae, Gray, 220. 

200. Glaucidae = Glaucidae, Gray, 222. 



201. Eolididae = Eolididae, Gray, 223. 

(Section 2.) 

202. Fionidae = Fionidae, Gray, 227. 

203. Hermaeidae = Hermaeidae, Gray, 227. 

SUB-ORDER PELLIBRANCHIATA. 
(Tribe 1.) 

204. Elysiidae = Elysiadae, Gray, 228. 

205. Limapontiidae = Limapontiadae, Gray, 229. 



17 



(Tribe 2.) 
206. Phyllirrhoidae = Phyllirhoidae, Gray, 230. 



SUB-ORDER ENTOCONCHACEA. 

207. Entoconchidae = Heterosalpinx, Baur, N. A. A. 

L. C. XXXI. 

SUB-CLASS PTEROPODA. 

ORDER XL THECOSOMATA. 

208. Limacinidae = Limacinacea, Tr. I, 50. 

209. Hyalidae = Hyalacea, Tr. I, 50. 

210. Cymbuliidae = Cymbuliacea, Tr. I, 53. 

211. Conulariidae = Conulariidae, Br. Th. Ill, 645. 

212. HijolitUdae = Tlietidae, Br. Th. Ill, 646. 

ORDER XIL GYMNOSOMATA 

214. Clionidae = Clionacea, Tr. I, 54. 

215. Pneuraodermo- 

nidae = Pneumodermacea, Tr. I, 56. 

216. Cymodoceidae = Pterocyinodoceidae, Br. Th. 

Ill, 645. 

SUB-CLASS PROSOPQCEPHALA. 

ORDER XIIL SOLEXOCOXCH^E. 

217. Dentaliidae = Dentaliidae, Br. Th. Ill, 523. 

2 



13 



CLASS C. CONCHIFERA. 

ORDER XIY. DIMYARIA. 

(Pholadacea.} 

218. Aspergillidae < Gastrochaenidae, Try on, P. A. 

K S. P., 1861, 465. 

219. Gastrochaenidae < Gastrochaenidae, Tryon, P. A. 

N. S. P., 1861, 465. 

* * 

220. Tereclinidae = Teredidae. Tryon. P. A. N. S. 

i/ / 

P., 1862, 453. 

221. Pholadidae = Pholadidae, Tryon, P. A. N. S. 

P., 1862, 191. 



222. Solenidae 

223. Solecurtidae 



224. Saxicavidae 

225. Myidae 

226. Corbulidae 

227. Pandoridae 

228. Anatinidae 

\ 

229. Myochamidae 



(Solenacea.) 

< Solenacees, Desh. 1860, 143. 

< Solenacees, Desh. I860, 143. 



(Myacea.} 

= Glycimerides, Desh. 1860, 165. 

< Myaires, Desh. 1860, 182. 

< Myaires, Desh. 1860, 182. 
= Pandoridae, Desh. 1860, 238. 

< Osteodesmidae, Desh. 1860, 

245. 
= Myochamidae, Cpr. Lect. 103. 



19 



230. Pholadomyidae = Pholadomyaclae, Desk. 1860, 

270. 

( Veneracea.} 

231. Mactridae < Mactracea, Desk 1860, 281. 

232. Mesodesmidae = Mesodesmides, Desh. 1860, 

. 297. 

233. Amphidesmidae = Amphidesmidae, Desh. 1860, 

297. 
* 

234. Tellinidae = Tellinidae, Desh. I860, 314. 

235. Psainrnobiidae = Psammobidae, Desh. 1860, 

364. 

236. Donacidae = Donacidae, Desh. I860, 387. 

237. Petricolidae = Lithophaga, Desh. 1860, 400. 

238. Yeneridae < Conchae, Desh. 1860, 407. 

239. Glauconomidae = Glauconomyadae, Ad. II ; 442. 

(Corbiculacea.) 

240. Cyrenidae = Cycladae, Gray, Turton, 250. 

241. Pisidiidae = Pisidiidae, Gray, Turton, 263. 

242. Cyrenoididae = Cyrenoididae, Ad. II, 452. 

(JDreissenaeea.) 

243. Dreissenidae = Dreissenidae, Ad. II, 52 



. 



(Cardiacea.) 

244. Veniliidae = Cyprinidae, Ad. II, 443. 

245. Glossidae < Bucardiidae Ad. II, 460. 



20 



246. Carcliidae 

247. Adacnidae 



< Cardiacea, Desh. 1860, 527. 

< Cardiacea, Desh. 1860, 527, 

(Chamacea.) 
248. Chamidae = Chamacea, Desh. 1860, 577, 



249. Lucinidae 

250. Ungulinidae 

251. Erycinidae 

252. Cyamiidae 

253. Leptonidae 

254. Galeommidae 



(Lucinacea.) 

< Lucinidae, Desh. 1860, 588, 

< Ungulinidae, Ad. II, 470. 

< Laseidae, Ad. II, 473. 

< Laseidae, Ad. II, 473. 

< Leptonidae, Ad. II, 477. 

< Galeommidae, Ad. II, 479. 



(Solemyacea.) 
255. Solemyidae = Soleniyadae, Desh. 1860, 728. 



256. Crassatellidae 



257. Carditidae 



( Carditacea.) 

= Crassatellidae, Desh. 1860, 
733. 

= Carditae, Desh. 1860, 751. 

(Naiades.) 

258. Unionidae < Unionidae, Ad. II, 489. 

259. Iridinidae = Mutelidae, Ad. II, 505. 

260. Mycetopodidae = Mycetopodidae, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1847, 197. 



(Mueller acea.) 

261. ^Etheriidae < jEtheriidae, Ad. II, 509. 

262. Muelleriidae < jEtheriidae, Ad. II, 509. 



21 



263.- Trigoniidae 



264. Nuculidae 

265. Lediclae 

266. Arcidae 



(Trigoniacea.] 
= Trigonea, Desh. 1860, 805, 

(Arcacea.) 

= JSTuculidae, Ad. II, 544. 

= Lediclae, Ad. II, 546. 

= Arcacea, Desh. 1860, 832. 



ORDER XV. METARRHIPTAE. 



267. Tridacnidae 



= Tridacnides, Vaill, A. S. 
IV, 1865, 64. 



ORDER XVI. HETEROMYARIA. 



268. Mvtilidae 



Mytilidae, Ad. II, 511. 



ORDER XVIL MONOMTAEIA. 



269. Pinnidae 



270. Pteriidae 



271. Vulsellidae 



(Aviculacea.) 

= Pinnidae, Meek, Sill. J. 

XXXVII, 212. 
= Pteriidae, Meek, Sill. J. 

xxxvn, 212. 

= Vulsellidae, Ad. II, 523. 




(Pedinacea.) 
272. Spondylidae = Spondylidae, Ad. II, 559. 



22 



273. Limidae 

274, Pectinidae 



277. Ostreidae 



278. Eligmidae 



Radulidac, Ad. II, 55G. 
Pectinidae, Ad. II, 550. 



(Anomiacea.) 

275. Placunidae = Placunidae, Carp. Lect. 123. 

276. Anomiidae = Anomiadae, Carp. Lect. 123. 



(Ostracea.) 

= Ostracea, Ad. II, 567. 



= Eligmus, Eudes Desl. M. L. S, 
N., X, 272, 



ORDER XVIIL RUDISTA. 



279. Hippuritidae 



280. Radiolitidae 



281. Caprinellidae 

282. Caprinidae 



283. Caprotinidae 



< Hippuritidae, Woodw. Man. 

1866, 440. 

< Hippuritidae, Woodw. Man. 

1866, 440. 

< Hippuritidae, Woodw. Man. 

1866, 440. 

< Hippuritidae, "Woodw. Man. 

1866, 440. 

< Hippuritidae, Woodw. Man. 

1866, 440. 



23 



(SUB-BRANCH MOLLUSCOIDEA.) 

CLASS D. TUMCATA. 

ORDER XIX. SACCOBRANCHIA. 

(Solitaria.) 

284. Pelonaeidae = Pelonaeidae, Br. HI, 216. 

285. Chelyosomidae < Ascidiadae, Br. Ill, 218. 

286. Ascidiidae < Ascidiadae, Br. Ill, 218. 

287. Bolteniidae < Ascidiadae, Br. Ill, 218. 

# 

2S7 a< Rhodosomidae = Rhodosoma, Crosse, J. C. XV, 

1877, 101. 

(Sociales.) 

(S. Peropliomcea.) 

288. Perophoridae < Clavellinidae, Br. HI, 217. 

(S. Clavellinacea.] 

289. Clavellinidae < Clavellinidae, Br. Ill, 217. 

(Aggregate,.) 

290. Sigillinidae < Didemninae, Br. Ill, 217. 
290 fl - Didemnidae < Didemninae, Br. Ill, 217. 

291. Leptoclinidae < Didemninae, Br. Ill, 217. 



24 



292. Polyclinidae < Polyclininae, Br. Ill, 217. 

293. Synoeciidae < Polyclininae, Br. Ill, 217. 

# 

294. Botryllidae = BotryUidae, Br. Ill, 217. 

ORDER XX. DACTYLOBRANCHIA. 

295. Pyrosomidae = Pyrosomatidae, Br. HI, 216. 

ORDER XXL TAENIOBRANCHIA. 

296. Doliolidae = Doliolidae, Br. El, 216. 

# 

297. Salpidae Salpidae, Br. Ill, 216. 

ORDER XXIL LARYALIA. 

298. Appendicula- = Appendiculariadae, Br. Ill, 

riidae 216. 



25 



CLASS E. BRACHIOPODA/ 

ORDER XXIIL ARTHROPOMATA. 

(Aneylopoda.) 

299. Terebratulidae < Terebratulidae, Dav. Int. 61. 
a. Terebratuli- = Terebratulinae, Ball, A. J. 

C. 1870. 
= Stringocephalinae, Dall, A. 

J. C. 1870. 
= Magasinae, Dall, A. J. C. 

1870. 
= Kraussininae, Dall 7 A. J. C. 

1870. 
= Platidiinae, Dall, A. J. C. 

1870. 
= Megathyrinae, Dall, A. J. 

1870. 

300. Thecidiidae = Thecideidae, Day. Int. 76. 



nae 

b. Strinyocepha- 

linae 

c. Magasinae 

d. Kraussininae 

e. Platidiinae 

f. Megathyrinae 



(Helictopoda.) 

301. Spiriferidae < Spiriferidae, Dav. Int. 79. 

302. Airypidae < Spiriferidae, Dav. Int. 90. 

303. Koninckinidae = Koninckinidae, Dav. Int. 92. 

304. Rhynchonellidae= Rhynchonellidae, Dav. Int. 93. 

a. Pentamerinae 

b. Rhynckonelli- 

nae 



26 

305. Strophomcnidae = Stropliomenidae, Dav. M. L. S. 

N., X, 191. 
a. Poramboniti- 

nae = Porambonitidae, Dav. Int. 99. 

1). Strophomeni- 

nae = Stroplwmenidae, Dav. Int. 101. 

c. Davidsoninae = Davidsonidae, Dav. Int. 109. 

306. Productidae = Productidae, Dav. Int. 112. 

' ORDER XXIV. LYOPOMATA. 

307. Craniidae = Craniadae, Dav. Int. 123. 

308. Discinidae = Discinidae, Dav. Int. 125. 

309. Lingulidae = Lingulidae, Dall. A. J. C. VI, 

1870. 

/ 

a. Lingulinae = Lingulinae, Dall. A. J. C. 

VI, 1870. 

b. Obolinae = OboUnae, Dall, A. J. C. VI, 

1870. 



27 



CLASS R POLYZOA. 

ORDER XXV. PHYLACTOL^MATA. 

SUB-ORDER LOPHOPODIA. 

310. Pectinatellidae = Pectinatellidae, Hyatt, P. E. I. 

1864-66. 

311. Cristatellidae = Cristatellidae, Hyatt, P. E. I. 

1864-66. 

312. Plumatellidae = Plumatellidae, Hyatt, P. E. I. 

1864-66. 

SUB-ORDER PEDICELLIXEA. 

313. Pedicellinidae = Pedicellinidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

ORDER XXVL GYMNOLJEMATA. 

SUB-ORDER URNATELLEA. 

314. Urnatellidae = Urnatellidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

SUB-ORDER PALUDICELLEA. 

315. Paludicellidae = Paludicellidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

SUB-ORDER CHILOSTOMATA. 
(Incrustata or Rigida.] 

316. Selenariidae = Selenariadae, Bronn, III, 86. 

317. Steginoporidae = Steginoporidae, Bronn, III, 86. 



28 

318. Eschariporidae = Eschariporiclac, Bronn, III, 86. 

319. Porellinidae = Porellinidae, Bronn, III, 8G. 

320. Pordlidae = PoreUidac, Bronn, 111, 86. 

321. Escharellidae = Escharellidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

322. Escharellinidae = Escharellinidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

323. Porinidae = Porinidae, Bronn, III, 86. 

324. Escharinellidae = Escharinellidae, Bronn, III, 85. 

325. Escharidae = Escharidae, Bronn, III, 85. 

326. Flustrinidae = Flustrinidae, Bronn, III, 85. 

327. Flustrellidae = Flustrellidae, Bronn, III, 85. 

328. Flustrellariidae = Flustrellariadae, Bronn, III, 

85. 

329. Hippothoidae = Hippothoidae, Bronn, III, 84. 

(Radicellata.) 
(Radicellata flexilia.] 

330. Gemellariidae = Gemellariadae, Bronn, III, 84. 

331. Farciniinariidae Farciminariadae, Bronn, III, 

84. 

332. Flustridae = Flustridae, Bronn, III, 84. 

333. Bicellariidae = Bicellariadae, Bronn, III, 84. 

334. Electrinidae = Electrinidae, Bronn, III, 84. 

335. Scrupariidae = Scrupariadae, Bronn, III, 83. 

(Radicellata articulata. ) 

336. Salicornariidae = Salicornariadae, Bronn, III, 83. 

337. Cellulariidae = Cellulariadae, Bronn, III, 83. 

338. Catenicellidae = Catenicellidae, Bronn, III, 83. 



29 

SUB-ORDER CTENOSTOMATA. 

339. Hislopiidae = Hislopiadae, Bronn, III, 83. 

340. Alcyonidiidae = Alcyonidiadae, Bronn>, III, 83. 

341. Yesiculariidae = Vesiculariadae, Bronn, III, S3. 

SUB-ORDER CYCLOSTOMATA. 
(Articiilata.} 

342. Crisiidae = Crisiadae, Bronn, III, 82. 

(Inarticulate,.} 

(Inarticulata opercidata.} 

343. Eleidae = Eleidae, Bronn, III, 82. 

344. Myriozoidae = Myriozoidae, Bronn, III, 82, 

(Inarticula ta fasc iculata . ) 

345. Fascigeridae = Fascigeridae, Bronn, III, 82, 

346. Fasciporidae = Fasdporidae, Bronn, III, 81, 

(Inarticulata tiibulata.) 

347. Tubigeridae = Tubigeridae, Bronn, III, 81. 

348. Sparsidae = Sparsidae, Bronn, III, 80. 

349. Clausidae = Clausidae, Bronn, III, 80. 

350. Crisinidae = Crisinidae, Bronn, III, 80, 

351. Caveidae = Caveidae, Bronn, III, 79. 

(Inarticulata foraminata.} 

352. Ceidae = Ceidae, Bronn, III, 79. 

353. Cavidae = Cavidae, Bronn, III, 79. 

354. Cytidae = Cytidae, Bronn, III, 79. 

355. Crescidae = Crescidae, Bronn, III, 79, 



30 

ORDER XXVII? RHABDOPLEURAE. 

356. Rhabdopleuri- = Rkabdopleura, Allm. Q. J. M. 
dae S., IX, n. s. 7 57. 



LIST OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO. 



The following enumeration of works is chiefly intended to explain the abbrevia- 
tions used in connection with the preceding list of families, and as the works most 
accessible to students generally have been used, whenever they could be referred 
to in explanation of the limits of families adopted, titles of the most elaborate and 
valuable monographs and catalogues of families and other groups have been entirely 
omitted, although the compiler has been fortunate enough to be enabled to make 
use of them. Special monographs have only been referred to when the groups in 
connection with which they are cited have not been limited in the same manner in 
general works. 

In order, however, to facilitate the use of the list, as well as reference to the 
series in question, Mr. Lovell Reeve's " Conchologia iconica" has been catalogued, 
and all the monographs hitherto published enumerated, with references to the 
families to which the respective genera belong in the present system. 

For the information of students, and because it is information often desired, the 
publishers' prices of most of the works cited are given, in the currency of the 
country where they were published. Many of the separate monographs reprinted 
from journals can be obtained from the second-hand book dealers especially the 
German and from the Naturalists' Agency of Salem, Mass., but at varying prices. 

In order to secure uniformity of typography, only the initial letters of the charac- 
teristic words are capital, the example of the learned brothers Grimm, as well as 
other German writers, sanctioning such usage for their language. The punctuation 
of the respective title-pages is adopted. 



ADAMS (Henry and Arthur). The genera of recent Mollusca; arranged ac- 
cording to their organization. .... In three volumes. .... Vol. I. [-] III. 
London : John Van Voorst, .... 1858. [8vo., V. I, 484 pp.; V. II, 2 p. 1. 
661 pp. ; Atlas, 3 p. 1. 138 pi. w. 138 1. opposite. Published in 36 parts, 1st 
Jan. 1853 1st Nov. 1858, at 2 sh. 6 d., plain ; 5 sh., animals colored, per part.] 

ALBBRS (Johann Christian). Die Heliceen nach natiirlicher verwandtschaft 
systematise!! geordnet von Joh. Christ. Albers, .... Zweite ausgabe nach 
dem hinterlassenen manuskript besorgt von Eduard von Martens. Leip- 
zig, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann. 1860. [8vo., xviii. 359pp. 3 th. 7^ngr.J 

ALDER (Joshua) and Albany HANCOCK. A monograph of the British 
Nuclibranchiate mollusca : with figures of all the species. .... London : 
Printed for the Ray Society, 1845. [Imp. 4to., 5 p. 1. 54 pp. 138 1., xl pp. 1 1., 
83 pi. Published in parts, 1845-55. ] 

[The arrangement of the Nudibranchiata is mostly adopted from Alder and 
Hancock (op. cit. pp. xiv. xxiv.). In place, however, of the single family 

(31) 



Dorididae, two (185, 186) are adopted ; four (187, 188, 189, 190) instead of the 
Polyceridae, and two (195, 196) disintegrated from the Heroidae.] 

ALDER (Joshua) and Albany HANCOCK. Notice of a collection of Nudi- 
branchiate mollusca made in India by Walter Elliott, Esq., with descriptions 
of several new genera and species. (1863.) <: Transactions of the Zoological 
Society of London, V, 1866, 113-147, pi. 28-33. 

ALLMAN (George James). On Rhabdopleura, a new form of polyzoa, from 
deep-sea dredging in Shetland. < Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science : 
[etc.], IX, n. s., 1869, 5763, pi. 8. 

AMERICAN Journal of Conchology. Volume I. [ ] II. Edited by George W. 

Tryon, Jr., .... Philadelphia: George W. Tryon, Jr., 625 Market Street. 

1865 [ ] 1866. [Published quarterly, at $3 per number, or $10 per year.] 
The same. Volume III. [ ] V. Published by the Conchological section of 

the Academy of Natural Sciences. .... Philadelphia : Conchological section 

of the Academy of Natural Sciences. . 1867 [ ] 1870. [Published at $10 

per annum, payable in advance. ] 

BARRANDE (Joachim). Caracteres distinctifs des Nautilides, Goniatides et 
Arnmonides. Etablissement du genre Nothoceras, .... < Bulletin de la 
Societe geologique de France. 2 e serie. XIII, 372-389, pi. 1112, 1856. 

[The genera enumerated in this article are co-equal with and arranged in 
the same sequence as the families of Goniatitoidea and Ammonitoidea, which 
are equivalent to the families Nautilides and Goniatides of Barrande.] 

Systeme silurien du centre de la Bohe'me .... l re partie : Recherches 

paleontologiques. Vol. II. Texte. Classe des mollusques. Ordre des Cepha- 
lopodes. 1867. Chez 1'auteur et editeur | a Prague .... a Paris, .... [4to., 
xxxvi, 712pp. 40 fr.] 

The same. [Atlas.] l^re partie : Recherches paleontologiques. Vol. II. Cepha- 



lopodes. [l^regme S erie, as below.] 1865 [-] 1868. Chez 1'auteur et edi- 
teur | a Prague, .... a Paris, .... [4to.] 

s g r i e : Planches 1 a 107. 1865. [100 fr.] 

serie : Planches 105 a 244. 1866. [125 fr.] 

serie : Planches 245 a 350. 1868. [140 fr.] 

BAUR (Albert). Beitrage zur naturgeschichte der Synapta digitata. Dritte 

abhandlung: Die eingeweideschnecke (Helicosyrinx parasita) in der leibes- 
hohle der Synapta digitata. ... Dresden. DruckvonE. Blochmann& sohn. 
1864. [4to., 2 p. 1. 119 pp. pi. vi. viii.] <Novorum Actorurn Academics 
Cresarese Leopoldino-Carolinoe naturae curiosorum XXXI. 1864. 

BRONN (Heinrich Georg). Die klassen und ordnungen des Thierreichs, wissen- 
schaftlich dargestellt in wort und bild .... Dritter band. Malacozoa . 
Leipzig und Heidelberg. C. F. Winter'sche verlagshandlung, 1862-66. [Pub- 
lished in 48 parts, 8vo., 1862-66, at th. per part, and bound in 2 vols., with 
double titles, general and special, viz :] 

III, 1. Die klassen und ordnungen der Weichthiere (Malacozoa), wissenschaft- 
lich dargestellt in wort und bild. Von Dr. H. G. Bronn, .... Dritten band 
erste abtheilung. Kopflose Weichthiere (Malacozoa Acephala). - . [2 
titles, pp. 1-518, pi. 44, w. 44 opp. expl. 1. 1862.] 



III, 2. Dr. H. G. Bronn's klassen und ordnungen der Weiclitliiere Qlala- 
cozoa), wissenschaftlich dargestellt iu wort und bild. Fortgesetzt yon 
Willielm Kcferstein, M. D. . Dritten bandes zweite abtheilung. 
Kopftragende "Weiclitliiere Qlalacozoa Cephalopliora). . [2 titles, pp. 
521-1500, pi. 45-136, w. 92 opp. expl. 1. 18G2-66.] 

CARPENTER (Philip P . . .). First steps towards a monograph of the Crc- 
cidse, a family of rostriferous gasteropoda. < Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London. Part XXVI, 1858, 413 144. 

Lectures on Mollusca; or, "shell-fish" and their allies. Prepared for the 

Smithsonian Institution, by Philip P. Carpenter, B. A., Ph. D., of Warrington, 
England. < Annual report of the board of regents of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, ... for ... 18GO, 1SG1, 151283. 

[Reprinted, with index, 140pp., Washington, I860.] 

CHENU (Jean Charles). Manuel de conchyliologie et de paleontologie conchy- 
liologique par le Dr. J. C. Chenu . Paris | Librairie Victor Masson 
1859 [-] 62. [8vo., 2 v. I, 2 p. 1. vii, 508 pp. ; II, 3 p. 1. 327 pp. Published 
in 3 parts, 1859-61 ( 12.50 -f- 12.50+20 = 45 fr. ; reduced now to 32 fr.] 

CHITTTT (Ed-ward). On Stoastornidse as a family, and on seven proposed new 
genera, sixty-one new species, and two new varieties from Jamaica. < Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Part XXA", 1857, pp. 162 201. 

CROSSE (H ). Note sur un genre [Rhodosorna] intermediare entre les 
ascidiens et les mollusqnes lamellibranches. < Journal de conchyliologie, 
v. XV (3e serie, t. VII), 1867, 101107. 

CROSSE (H ) and Paul FISCHER. Etude sur la machoire et 1' armature 
linguale des Cylindrellidse et des quelques genres voisins sous la rapport con- 
chy liologique. < Journal de conchyliologie, v. XVIII (3 e serie. t. X), 1870, 
527, pi. 35. 

DALL (William Healey). Materials for a monograph of the family Lepetidoe. 

< American Journal of Conchology. V, 140 150, PL xv. 1870. 
Materials toward a monograph of the Gadiuiida?. <Ib. VI, 8 22, pi. 2 

and 4, fig. 13, 1213. 1870. 
Remarks on the anatomy of the genus Siphonaria, with a description of a 

new species. <Ib. VI, 30 41, pi. 4 5. 1870. 
On the genus Pornpholyx and its allies, with a revision of the Limnseidse 

of authors. < Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. IX, 

333361 ; PI. ii. 1870. 

A revision of the Terebratulidse and Lingulidse, with remarks on, and de- 
scriptions of, some recent forms. <: American Journal of Conchology. VI. 

88168, pi. 6, 7, and 8. 1870. 
On the limpets ; with special reference to the species of the west coast of 

America, and to a more natural classification of the group. <Ib. VI, 1870. 

(In press.) 

DAVIDSON (Thomas). British fossil Brachiopoda. By Thomas Davidson, 
Esq., F.G.S., . Vol. I. "\Vith a general introduction: I. On the anatomy 
of Terebratula. By Professor Owen, .... II. On the intimate structure of 

3 






34 

the shells of the Brachiopoda. By Professor Carpenter, .... III. On the 

classification of the Brachiopoda. By Thomas Davidson, . London : 

Printed for the Palseontographical Society. 1851 1854. [4to. 1 p. 1. 136 pp. 
9 pi. w. 9 1. expl.] 

DAVIDSON (Thomas). Introduction a 1'histoirc naturelle dcs Brachiopodes 
vivants et fossiles, ou considerations generalcs sur la classification de ces 
etres en families et en genres ; par Thomas Davidson, Esq., . Traduit 
de 1'Anglais par M. Eudes-Deslongchamps, . . . ; et par M. Eugene Eudes- 
Deslongchamps, .... <Memoires de la Societe linueene de Normandie. 
X, 1856, 71271, pi. 614, with 9 1. exphm. 

[A translation of the third part of the preceding work, with modifications 
by the author.] 

DESK A YES (Gerard Paul). Description des animaux sans vertebres decou- 
verts dans la bassin de Paris pour servir de supplement a la Description des 
coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris comprenant une revue generale de toutes 

les especes actuellernent connues, par G-. P. Deshayes. [See "Contents."] 

Paris, J. B. Bailliere et fils, ' . 1860 [ ] 1866. [50 livr., cliaque livr. 5 fr.] 

CONTENTS. 

Tome premier. Texte. Mollusques Acephales Dimyaires. Accompagne d'un 
Atlas de 89 planches. . 1860. [2 p. 1. 912 pp.] 

Tome deuxieme. Texte. Mollusques Acephales Monomyaires et Brachio- 
podes. Mollusques Cephales. Premiere partie. Accompagne d'un Atlas 
de 64 planches. (Planches 1 a 64.) ... 1864. [3 p. 1. 968 pp.] 

Tome troisieme. Texte. Mollusques Cephales, deuxieme partie. Mollusques 
Cephalopodes. Accompagne d'un Atlas de 42 planches. (Planches 65 a 
107.) 1866. [2 p. 1. 667pp.] 

Atlas. Tome premier. (89 planches.) Mollusques Acephales. 1860. 
[2p.l. [92] pp. [89] pi.] 

Atlas. Tome deuxieme. (107 planches.) Mollusques Cephales et Mollusques 
Cephalopodes. ... 1866." [2 p. 1. 107 pp. 107 pi.] 

[This w T ork is cited as containing the latest general revision of the classi- 
fication of the Conchifera, by one who has perhaps devoted more attention to 

those animals than any other naturalist. ] 

DESLONGCHAMPS (Jacques Arxnand Eudes). Description d'un nouveau 
genre de coquilles bivalves fossiles Eligrnus, provenant de la grande oolithe du 
depart ement du Calvados ; .... <Mernoires de la Societe linneene de Nor- 
mandie. X, 1856, 272293, pi. 1516. 

GILL (Theodore Nicholas). Systematic arrangement of the mollusks of the 
family Viviparida?, and others, inhabiting the United States. < Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1863, 33 40. 

On the family Strombid:>e, and its classification. < American Journal of 

Conchology. (Not yet published.) 

GRAY (John Edward). Catalogue of the Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Part I. Cephalopoda Antepedia. Printed by order of the 
trustees. London: 1849. [12mo. viii, 164 pp. 4sh.] 



35 

GRAY (John Edward. ) A list of the genera of recent Mollnsca, their synonyma 

and types. < Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part XV, 

1847, 129219. 

[Republished, with same pagination, and with special title-page, in kt Figures 

of molluscous animals, selected from various authors. Etched for the use of 

students. By Maria Emma Gray." iv, 1859.] 
On the arrangement of the Land Pulmoniferous mollusca into families. 

<The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. VI, Third Series, 1860, 

267269. 
Notes on the specimens of Calyptraeidse in Mr. Cumming's collection. 

< Proceedings of the scientific meetings of the Zoological Society of London 
for the year 1867, 726748. 

HANCOCK (Albany). See Alder (Joshua) and Hancock. 

HUXLEY* (Thomas Henry). An introduction to the classification of animals. 

.... London : John Churchill & Sons, .... 1869. [8vo., 4 p. 1. 147 pp. 

6sh.] 

[Authority for the Tunicate order Larvalia.] 

HYATT (Alpheus). Observations on Polyzoa. Suborder PhylactolaGinata. 

< Proceedings of the Essex Institute, IV, V. 

[Author's separate ed., iv, 103 pp., 15 pi. w. 7 intercalated leaves explana- 
tory . ] 

JOURNAL de conchyliologie, comprenant 1'etucle des animaux, dcs coquilles 

vivantes et des coquilles fossiles, publie sous la direction de M. Petit de la 

Saussaye. Tome premier [ ] quatrieme. A Paris, chez M. Petit de la 

Saussaye, . . . , 1830 [ ] 1853. 
Journal de conchyliologie publie sons la direction de MM. Fischer et Ber- 

nardi. Tome V [ '] VIII. 2e serie. Tome ler [ ] IV. A Paris, chez M. 

Bernardi, .... Juillet 1856 [--] Janvier 1860. 
Journal de conchyliologie, publie sous la direction de MM. Crosse et Fischer 

[et Bernardi, 18611863]. 3^ serie. Tome ler [ ] Xe. Vol. IX [ ] XVIII. 
-A Paris, chez M. Crosse, rue Tronchet, 25. 1861 [ ] 1870. 
[Prix de Fabonnement : pour France, 16 fr.; pour les pays hors d'Europe, 

20 fr.] 

LEA (.Tsaac). A synopsis of the family Unionidse. Fourth edition, very 

greatly enlarged and improved. Philadelphia : Henry C. Lea. 1870. [4to. 

xxx pp. + bastard title -f- 25 184 pp.] 

MACDONALD (John Denis). On the representative relationships of the fixed 
and free Tuuicata, regarded as two subclasses of equivalent value ; with some 
general remarks on their morphology. Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh. XXIII, 1864, 171183, pi. is, 1862-63. 

On the anatomy and classification of the Heteropoda. <Ib. XXIII, 1864, 

120, pi. i ii, 1861-62. 

MEEK (Fielding Bradford). Remarks on the family Actseonidse, with descrip- 
tions of some new genera and subgenera. <: The American journal of science 
and arts. Conducted by B. Silliman, B. Sillimau, Jr., and James H. Dana 
[etc.]. Second series, XXXV, 1863, 84 94. 



36 

MEEK (Fielding Bradford). Remarks on the family Pteriidoe (=Aviculidse) 
with descriptions of some new fossil genera. <= American journal of science 
and arts, [etc.] Second series, XXXVII, 1804, 212220. 

Note on the affinities of the Bellerophontidoe. < Proceedings of the Chicago 

academy of sciences, I, 9 11, 1865. 

Check list of the invertebrate fossils of North America. Cretaceous and 



Jurassic. By F. B. Meek. Washington : Smithsonian Institution. April, 

1864. [8vo. 1 p. 1. 40 pp. 25 c.] <; Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 
VII, 1867. 

MORCH (Otto A L ). Review of the Vermetidse. < Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society of London for the year 1861, 145 181, pi. 25 (Part I) ; 
326365 (Part II) ; 1862, 5483 (Part III). 

OWEN (Richard). Mollusca. <The Encyclopaedia Britannica, .... XV, 
1857, 319403. 

[Authority for the subdivision of Tunicates into SaccobrancUiata, Dactylo- 
branchiata, and Taeniobranchiata.] 

PFEIFFER (Louis). Monographia Pneumonoporum viventium. Sistens des- 
criptiones systematicas et criticas omnium hujus ordinis generuni et specierum 

liodie cognitarum, accedente fossilium enumeralione. .... Cassellis. 

Sumptibus Theodori Fischer. 1852. [etc. 8vo. xviii, 439 pp. S-h- th.] 

Ibid. II. Supplernentuni prinium. .... Cassellis. Sumptibus Theo- 
dori Fischer. 1858. [8vo. viii, 249 pp. 2 th.] 

Ibid. III. Supplementuin secundum. ... Cassellis Sumptibus Theo- 
dori Fischer. 1865. [8vo. 2 p. 1. 284 pp. 2 th.] 

Catalogue of Phaneropueumona, or terrestrial operculated mollusca, in the 

collection of the British Museum. Printed by order of the trustees. Lon- 
don, 1852. [ISmo. 2 p. 1. 324 pp. 5 sh.] 

[A translation of the Mouographia Pneumonoporum viventium (1852), with 
few modifications, edited by Dr. J. E. Gray.] 

Monographia Auriculaceorum viventium. Sistens descriptiones systematicas 

et criticas omnium hujus faniiliae generuni et specierum. hodie cognitarum, 
nee non fossilium enumeratione. Accedente Prosipernaceorum nee non generis 
Truncatellae historia. Cassellis. Sumptibus Theodori Fischer. 1856. [8vo. 
xiii, 209pp. 2th.] 

- Catalogue of Auriculidse, Proserpiuidse, and Truncatellidse in the collection 



of the British Museum. London : printed by order of the trustees. 1857. 
[12nio. 2 p. 1. 150 pp. 1 sh. 9 d.] 

[A translation of the preceding, with slight modifications, edited by Dr. 
J. E. Gray.] 

PHILADELPHIA (Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of). [Catalogue of recent Mollusca. Viz : ] 

Catalogue of recent Mollusca, belonging to the order Pholadacea. By George 

W. Tryon, Jr. pp. 121. 1868. 

Catalogue of the family Solenidse. By T. A. Conrad, pp. 2229. 1868. 
Catalogue of the family Mactridae. By T. A. Conrad, pp. 3047. 1868. 
Catalogue of the family Anatinidee. By T. A. A. Conrad, pp. 4958. 1869. 



37 

Catalogue of the families Saxicavidse, Myidse and Corbulidse. By George W. 

Trvon, jr. pp. 5968. 1869. 
Catalogue of the family Pandoridae. By Philip P. Carpenter, pp. 69 71. 

1869. 
Catalogue of the family Tellinidrc. By George W. Tryon, jr. pp. 72126. 

1869. 
Catalogue of the recent species of the family Corbiculadae. By Temple Prime. 

pp. 127187. 1870. 
Catalogues of the families Porcellanidse [=Cypraeidse-|-Triviidae Eratoinse] 

and Amphiperasidee. By S. R. L Roberts, pp. 189 214. 1870. 
Catalogue of the known species, recent and fossil, of the family Marginellidre 

[-f Cystiscidse + Eratoinoe]. By John H. Redfield. pp. 215 269. 1870. 

[Although these catalogues have not actually been referred to in the 
Arrangement, they are here recorded on account of their usefulness as well as 
cognate nature.] 

See, also, AMERICAN Journal of Conchology. 

REEVE (Lovell Augustus). Conchologica iconica ; or, illustrations of the 
shells of Molluscous animals. . London : Reeve, brothers, . 1843 [-] 
1845 ; Reeve, Benham, and Reeve, .... 1847 [-] 1849 ; Reeve and Beuharn, 
.... 1851 ; Lovell Reeve, .... 1854 [-] 1860; Lovell Reeve & co., .... 
1862, [et seq.] [4to., 193 monographs in 17 volumes.] 

[The following classified list of the "monographs" is given, in order to serve 
as an index to the volumes a desideratum that has not been supplied by the 
publishers as well as and more especially to serve as a reference from the best 
known generic names to the position of the families in the present arrange- 
ment, and to give some although rather inadequate idea of the numbers of 
species. It must be understood, however, that many of the "genera" enume- 
rated in the following list are artificial assemblages of species combined on 
account of agreement in some more or less marked conchological character, 
and that some genera (e.g. Bulimus, Helix, Lucina, Pyrula, etc.) contain 
representatives of several widely distinct families. The references in such 
cases are to the families containing the typical species of such genera. 

The monographs were generally published within a year of dates assigned 
to the volumes in which they were subsequently combined. 



Vo 
1 


Tear 
1843 


PI. 
131 


. 
8 


s. 
10 


d. 
6 


Vol. 
10 


Year. 
1858 


PI. 

T?6 


. 
8 


6. 

4 


d. 



2 


1843 


114 




9 


o 


11 


1859 


1?6 


8 


4 





3 


. 1845 


130 


8 


9 





12 


I860 


131 


8 


10 


fi 


4 


1847 


110 


7 


4 





13 


1862 


1?6 


8 


4 





5 


1849 


147 




10 


6 


14 


1864 


137 


8 


.IS 





6 


1851 


l?q 


8 


8 





15 


1866 


1?1 


8 


I) 





7 


1854 


210 


.13 


15 





16 


1868 


17 


8 


5 


fi 


R 


1855 ... 


153 


9 


18 





17 


1870 


T>3 








9 


. 1856 . 


119 


. 7 


15 


6 















The prices of separate monographs range from 1 sh. 6 d. per plate (1 2 pi.) 
and 1 sh. 4 d. (3 6 pi.) to little more than 1 sh. 3 d., according to the number 
of plates.] 



38 



CONTENTS. 

CLASS A. CEPHALOPODA. 
Order I. DIBRANCHIATA. 



Monograph of the genus. 


Species. Plates. 


Volume. 


Family 


Argonauta 


5 4 


12 


4 




Order II. TETRABRANCHIATA. 






Nautilus 


5 6 , 


12 


19 




CLASS B. GASTEROPODA. 








SUB-CLASS DIOECA. 








Order III. PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 






Adamsiella 


17 2 


14 


67 


Ampullaria 


134 28 


10 


72 


Ancillaria 


51 12 


15 


(51 


Anculotus 


53 6 


12 


86 


Buccinum 


118 14 


3 


56 


Bullia 


26 4 


3 


57 


Calyptrsea 


33 8 


11 


99 


Cancellaria 


86 18 


10 , 


48 


Cassidaria 


3 1 


5 


113 


Cassis 


33 12 


5 


113 


Cerithidea 


29 4 


15 


90 


Cerithium 


149 20 


15 


90 


Chondropoma 


89 11 


14 


67 


Columbella 


240 37 


11 


, 65 


Concholepas 


2 2 


14 


C4 


Conus 


333 56 


1 


43 


Crepidula 


30 5 


11 


99 


Crucibulum 


25 7 


11 


89 


Cyclophorus 


104 20 


13 


, 68 


Cyclostoma 


161 23 


13 


67 


Cyclotus 


59 9 


14 


68 


Cymbium 


IS 2l) 


13 


52 


Cyprsea , 


154 27 


3 


106 


Delpbinula 


27 5 


1 


130 


Dolium , 


15 8 


5 


112 


Eburna , 


9 1 


5 


57 


Eglisia (With Mesalia).., 


3 


5 


95 


Erato 


18 3 


15 


107 


Eulima 


48 6 


15 


84 


Fasciolaria 


16 7 


4 


53 


Ficula 


4 1 


4 


Ill 


Fusus 


91 21 


4 


53 


Halia 


1 1 


14 


46 


liar pa 


9 4 


1 


62 


Hemis'.nus 


26 6 


12 


88 


lanthina 


25 5 


11 


116 


lo 


21 . 3 . 


. 12., 


86 



Monograph of the genus. 


Species. 


Plates. 


Volume. 


Family. 


Lampania 


10 


2 


15 


90 


Leiostraca 


21 


3 


15 


84 


Leptopoma 


51 


8 


13 


67 


Littorina 


107 


18 


10 , 


82 


Mangel ia 


71 


8 


3 , 


44 


Marginella 


159 


27 


15 


51 


Melania 


473 


59 


12 , 


S3 


Melanopsis 


10 


3 


12 


87 


Melatoina 


23 


3 


12 


86 


Mesalia and Eglisia 


33 


1 


5 


95 


Meta , 


6 


1 


11 


65 


Mitra 


334 


39 , 


2 


54 


Monoeeros 


15 


4 


3 


64 


Murex 


194 


37 


3 


64 


Nassa 


196 


29 


8 


, 57 


Natica 


143 


30 


9 


110 


Kiso 


9 


1 


15 


84 


Oliva 


99 


30 


6 


61 


Oniscia 


6 


1 


5 


113 


Ovulum 


C6 


14 


15 


105 


Paludina 


75 


11 


14 


74 


Paludomus 


15 


3 


14 


88 


Phorus 


9 


3 


1 


101 


Pirena 


11 


2 


12 


87 


Pleurotoma 


309 


40 


1 


44 


Potamides 


2 


1 


15 


90 


Pterocera 


10 


6 


6 


102 


Pterocyclos 


30 


5 


14 


68 


Purpura 


80 


13 


3 


64 


Pvramidella 


45 


6 


15 


83 


Pyrazus 


4 


1 


15 


90 


Pyrula 


29 


9 


4 


55 


Ranella 


50 


8 


2 


114 


Ricinula 


54 


6 


3 


64 


Rostellaria 


10 , 


3 


6 


102 


Sigaretus 


26 


5 


15 


110 


Solarium 


21 


3 


15 


117 


Strombus 


56 


19 


6 


102 


Struthiolaria 


4 


1 


6 


.103 


Telescopium 


2 


1 


15 


90 


Terebellum 


1 


1 


......... 14 


102 


Terebra 


155 


27 


12 


47 


Triton 


102 


20 


9 


115 


Trochita 


15 


3 


11 


99 


Turbinella 


73 


13 


4 


59 


Turritella 


65 


11 


5 


95 


Tympanotonos 


10 


2 


15 


90 


Umbrella 


3 


1 


11 


182 


Vertagus 


26 


5 


15 


90 


Voluta 


61 . 


. 22 ., 


6 . 


52 



40 

Order IV. HETEROPODA. 



Monograph of tl 


le genus. Species. Plates. 


Volume. 


Family, 


Carinaria 


3 1 


15 


120 




Order V. RIIIPIDOGLOSSA. 






Fissurella 


122 1C 


6 


136 


Ilaliotis 


73 17 


3 


134 


Latia (With Nav 


icella) 2 


9 




Navicella 


33 8 


9 


125 


Nerita , 


85 19 


9 


126 


Neritina 


173 37 


9 


126 


Phasianella 


20 6 


13 


128 


Scutus 


5 2 


17 


137 


Trochus 


99 16 


13 


130 


Tugalia 


7 1 


17 


137 


Turbo 


63 13 


4 


128 


Zizyphinus 


65 8 


14 


130 




Order VI. DOCOGLOSSA. 






Patella 


141 42 


8 


144 




Order VII. POLYPLACOPHORA. 






Chiton 


194 33 


.... 4 


142 


Chitonellus 


7 1 


4 


,,, , 143 




SUB-CLASS PULMONIFERA. 








Order VIII. PULMOSTATA. 






Achatina 


129 23 


5 , 


,. 150 


Achatinella 


45 6 


6 


149 


Anastoma 


5 1 


14 


150 


Bulimus 


662 89 


5 


150 


Helix 


1495 210 


7 , 


150 


Partula 


25 4 


6 


149 


Scarabus 


28 3 


12 


166 


Simpulopsis 


14 2 


13 


157 


Siphonaria 


36 7 


9 


167 


Vitrina , 


78 10 


13 


,., 151 




SUB-CLASS OPISTHOBRANCHIATA 








Order IX. TECTIBRANCHIATA. 






Akera 


7 1 


15 


, 176 


Aplustrum , 


3 1 


16 


177 


Aplysia 


48 10 


17 


179 


Atys 


30 5 


17 


176 


Bulla , 


19 6 


16 


176 


Dolabella 


6 2 


16 


179 


Dolabrifera 


7 1 


16 


179 


Haminea 


32 5 


16 


176 


Hydatina 


4 2 


16 


177 


Pleurobranchus . 


8 1 


17 


183 




22 , 4 . 


. 15 . 


. 173 



Order X. NUDIBRANCHIATA. 
No genera monographed. 

SUB-CLASS PTEROPODA. 

Order XI. THECOSOJIATA. 

Order XII. GYMNOSOJIATA. 

No genera monographed. 

SUB-CLASS PROSOPOCEPHALA. 

Order XIII. SOLENOCONCHA. 

No genera monographed. 

CLASS C. CONCHIFERA. 
Order XIV. DIMVARIA. 



Monograph of the genus. 


Species. 


Tlates. 


Volume. 


Family. 


Amphidesma 


53 


7 


8 


, 233 


Anatina 


30 


4 


14 


228 


Anodon 


154 


37 


17 


258 


Area 


122 


17 


2 


260 


Artemis 


61 


10 


6 


233 


Aspergillum 


19 


4 


12 


21S 


Capsa 


2 


1 


10 


235 


Capsella 


16 


2 


10 


236 


Cardita 


50 


9 


1 


257 


Cardium 


133 


22 , 


12 


246 


Castalia 


13 


3 


17 


259 


Chama 


55 


9 


4 


248 


Chamostrea 


1 


1 


14 


248 


Circe 


49 


10 , 


14 


, 238 


Corbula 


43 


5 


2 


226 


Crassatella .. 


19 


3 


1 


256 


Cucullsea 


3 


1 


17 


266 


Cypricardia 


13 


9 


1 


246 


Cytherea 


49 


10 


14 


238 


Dione 


C2 


12 


14 


238 


Donax 


68 


9 


8 


236 


Galatea 


16 


6 


16 


240 


Glauconome 


9 


1 


2 


, 239 


Hyria 


13 


15 


17 


259 


Iridina 


5 


9 


16 


250 


Isocardia 


5 


1 


2 


245 


Lucina 


69 


11 


6 


249 


Lutraria 


18 


5 


8 


231 


Mactra 


125 


21 


8 


231 


Meroe 


12 


3 


14 


238 


Mesodesma 


31 


4 


8 


232 


Myadora 


10 


1 


2 


227 


Mycetopus 


10 


4 


16 


260 


Myochama 


4 


1 


12 


229 


Peotunculus , 


52 . 


9 . 


1 . 


. 266 








42 






Monograph of the genus. 


SpecieH 


Platen. 


Volume. 


Famil 


Pleioclon 


2 . 


1 


16 


259 


Psammobia 


59 . 


8 


10 


235 


Psarnmotella 


7. 


1 


10 


235 


Sanguinolaria 


5 ., 


1 


10 


235 


Suletelliua 


21 . 


4 


10 


235 


Tapes , 


75. 


13 


14 


233 


Tellina 


345 . 


58 


17 


234 


Thr.icia 


22 . 


3 


12 


223 


Trigonia 


4. 


1 


12 


2G3 


Tugonia 


6 . 


1 


14 


225 


Unio 


525 . 


96 


16 


258 


Venus 


141 . 


26 


14 


238 


Order XV. METARRHIPT^E. 


Hippopus 


1 . 


1 


14 


267 


Tridacna 


9. 


8 


14 


, ,, 267 


Order XVI. HETEROMYARIA. 


Lithodomus 


34. 


5 


10 


268 


Modiola 


71 . 


11 


10 


268 


Mytilus 


61 . 


11 


10 


,,, 268 




Order XVII. 


MONOMYARIA. 






Anomia 


37 . 


8 


11 


276 


Avicula 


75 . 


18 


10 


270 


Crenatula 


8 . 


2 


11 


270 


Hemipecten 


1 . 


1 


6 


274 


Hinnites 


2 . 


1 


8 


274 


Malleus 


13 . 


3 


11 


270 


Pecten 


176 . 


35 


8 


274 


Peduni 


1 . 


1 


n 


272 


Perna 


28 . 


6 


11 


270 


Pinna 


66 . 


34 


11 


269 


Placunanomia , 


14 . 


3 


11 


276 


Spondylus 


68. 


18 


9 


272 


Vulsella 


17 . 


2 ... 


... 11 


271 



Order XVIIL RUDISTA. 
No genera monographed. 

Sub-Branch MOLLUSCOIDEA. 

CLASS D. TUNICATA. 

Order XIX. SACCOBRANCHIA. 

Order XX. DACTYLOBRANCHIA. 

Order XXI. T.ENIOBRANCHIA. 

Order XXII. LARVALIA. 

No genera monographed. 

CLASS E. BEACHIOPODA. 

Order XXIII. ARTHROPOMATA. 

Terebratula and Khynchonella 51 11 13 299 



Order XXIV. LYOPOMATA. 
Monograph of the genus. Species. Plates. Volume. Family. 

Crania 4 1 13 307 

Lingula 11 2 13 309 

Orbicula 7 1 13 308 

STEENSTRUP (Japetus Smith). Overblik over cle i Kjobenhavns inuseer 
opbevarede Blseksprutter fra (let aabne liav (1800-61). [Cranchiosformes.] 
< Oversigt over clet Kgl. danske viderskabernes selskabs foiiiandliuger og dels 
medlernmers arbeider i aaret 1861, 69 86. 

STIMFSON (William). On certain genera and families of Zoopliagous Gas- 
teropods. < American Journal of Conckology. I, 55 64, pi. 8, 9. 1865. 

Researches upon the Hydrobiina3 and allied forms ; chiefly made upon 

materials in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Dr. William. 
Stinipsou. Washington : Smithsonian Institution. August, 1865. [8vo. 2 p. 1. 
59 pp. 50 c.] < Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. YIL 

TROSCHEL (Franz Hermann). Das gebiss der Schnecken zur begriindung 
einer natiirlichen classification untersucht von Dr. F. H. Troschel, .... 

Erster band. Mit zwanzig kupfertafeln von Hugo Troschel. Berlin. Nico- 

laische verlagsbuchhandlung. (G. Parthey.) 1856 1863. [4to. viii, 252 pp. 
20 pi. and 20 1. explan. opposite. Published in 5 parts, lief. 1 4, each 2 th. 
20 ngr.; lief. 5, 3th.; complete, 13f th. Zweiten bandes erste [ ] dritte liefer- 
ung. pp. 1-132, pi. 1-12, 18661869 ; lief. 13, each 3 th.] 

TRYON (George "Washington, jr.). Synopsis of the recent species of Gas- 
trochrenidaB [including Brechitidoe], a family of acephalous mollusca. < Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1861, 465 494. 

On the classification and synonymy of the recent species of PholadidaB. 

<Ib. 1862, 191221. 

Monograph of the family Teredidse. <Ib. 1862, 453 482. 

Observations on the family Strepornatida3 [=Ceraphasiida3]. < American 

Journal of Conchology. I, 1865, 93 135. 

Monograph of the family Strepomatidce. < Ib. I, 1865, 299 341 ; II, 



1866, 1452, 115133. 

TURTON (William). Manual of the land and fresh-water shells of the British 
islands. With figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M. D. Xew 
edition, with additions, by John Edward Gray, .... London : Longman, 
Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. 1857. (12ino. XVI, 335 pp. 12 pi.) 

VAILLANT (Leon). Recherches sur la famille des Tridacnides. <Annales 
des Sciences ISTaturelles. Cinquieme serie. Zoologie et paleontologie. IV, 
64172, pi. 812, 1865. 

WOODWARD (Samuel P ). A manual of the Mollusca; or, a rudimentary 
treatise of recent and fossil shells. By S. P. Woodward, A.L.S. ... Illus- 
trated by A. 1ST. Waterhouse and Joseph Wilson Lowry. London : John Weale, 
. . . , MDCCCLI VI. [12mo. xvi, 486 pp. 1 front. 24 pi. with 12 interca- 
lated leaves explanatory, 1 map. 6 sh. 6 d. Originally issued in three parts.] 



"WOODWARD (Samuel P ) A manual of the Mollusca : a treatise on 
recent and fossil shells. By the late S. P. "Woodward, A.L.S. [etc.]. With 
numerous illustrations by A. N. Waterhouse and J. W. Lowry. Second 
edition. London: Virtue brothers & co., 1806. [12nio. xiv, 518 pp. 1 
front. 23 pi. with 12 1. explanatory, 1 map. 5 sh. 6 d.] 

Appendix to the Manual of the Mollusca of S. P. Woodward, A.L.S., con- 
taining such recent and fossil shells as are not mentioned in the second edition 

of that work. By Ralph Tate, .... London : Virtue & co., . . . . 18G3. 

ClSmo. 86pp. 1 sh.] 



INDEX TO ARRANGEMENT OF MOLLUSKS. 



Abrancbia, p. 12. 
Aciculacea, 70. 
Aciculidae, 70. 
Acruaeidae, 139. 
Actaeonellidae, 174. 
Actaeonidae, 173, 174. 
Adacnidae, 247. 
Admetncea, 49. 
Adinetidae, 49. 
^Itheriidae, 261, 262. 
Aggregata, p. 23. 
Agnatha, p. 12. 
Alata, 102. 
Alcyonidiadae, 340. 
Alcyonidiidae, 340. 
Ainmonitidae, 33. 
Ammonites, 33. 
Ammonitoidea, p. 3. 
Amnicolinae, 78a. 
Amoriana, 52. 
Ainphibolidae, 169. 
Amphidesmidae, 233. 
Amphiperasidae, 105. 
Ampbyspiradae, 171. 
Amphyspiridae, 171. 
Amplustridae, 177. 
Ampullariacea, 72. 
Ampullariidae, 72. 
Anatinidae, 228. 
Ancillina, 61. 
Ancillinae, 61e. 
Ancylidae, 163. 
Ancyloceras, 36. 
Ancyloceratidae, 36. 
Ancylopoda, p. 25. 
Anomiacea, p. 22. 
Anomiadae, 276. 
Anomiidae, 276. 
Aphragmites, 27. 
Aplysiadae, 179. 
Aplysiidae, 179. ' 
Aporrhaidae, 103 
Appendiculariadae, 298. 
Appendiculariidae, 298. 
Arcacea, p. 21. 
Arcacea, 266. 
Architectonidae, 117. 
Arcidae, 266. 
Argonautidae, 4. 
Arionidae, 156. 
Arthropomata, p. 25. 



Articulata, p. 29. 
Ascidiadae, 285, 286, 287. 
Ascidiidae, 286. 
Ascoceras, 27. 
Ascoceratidae, 27. 
Aspergillidae, 218. 
Assiminiidae, 75. 
Atlantacea, 119. 
Atlantidae, 119. 
Atrypidae, 302. 
Atypoglossa, p. 6. 
Auriculidae, 166. 
Aviculacea, p. 21. 

Bactrites, 30. 
Baculina, 42. 
Baculinidae, 42. 
Baculites, 41. 
Baculitidae, 41. 
Bactritidae, 30. 
Basommatophora, p. 13. 
Bathmoceras, 17. 
Bathtnoceratidae, 17. 
Belemnitidae, 15. 
Belleropbontacea, p. 11. 
Bellerophontidae, 138. 
Belopteridae, 14. 
Belosepiidae, 12. 
Bicellariadae, 333. 
Bicellariidae, 333. 
Bolteniidae, 287. 
Brachiopoda, p. 25. 
Bucardiidae, 245. 
Buccinidae, 56. 
Buccinina, 56. 
Buccininae, 56b. 
Bullidae, 176. 
Bullinadae, 175. 
Bythiniidae, 80. 
Bythiniinae, 80. 

Caecidae, 92. 
Calyptraeidae, 99. 
Calyptriidae, 99. 
Cancellariacea, 48. 
Cancellariidae, 48. 
Cnprinellidae, 281. 
Caprinidae, 282. 
Caprotinidae, 283. 
Capulacea, 98. 
Capulidae, 98. 



Cardiacea, p. 19. 
Cardiacea, 246, 247. 
Cardiidae, 246. 
Carditacea. p. 20. 
Carditae, 257. 
Carditidae, 257. 
Carinariacea, 120. 
Carinariidae, 120. 
Cassidea, 113. 
Cassididae, 113. 
Cassidulina, 55. 
Catenicellidae, 333. 
Caveidae, 351. 
Cavidae, 353. 
Ceidae, 352. 
Cephalopoda, p. 1. 
Cellulariadae, 337. 
Cellulariidne, 337. 
Ceritbia, 89, 90. 
Cerithiacea, 90. 
Cerithiidae, 90. 
Cerithiinae, 90a. 
Cerithiopsidae, 89. 
Ceratitidae, 32. 
Ceratites, 32. 
Ceratobranchia, p. 16, 
Ceratosomidae, 190. 
Ceripbasiidae, 86. 
Chamacea, p. 20. 
Chamacea, 248. 
Chamidae, 248. 
Chelyosomidae, 285. 
Chilinidae, 161. 
Cbilostomat;i, p. 27. 
Chiroteuthidae, 6. 
Chitonellidae, 143. 
Chitonidae, 142. 
Chrysodominae, 56c. 
Cirrhoteuthidae, 1. 
Cistulea, 67. 
Cistulinae, 67b. 
Class A. p. 1. 
Class B. p. 4. 
Class C. p. 18. 
Class D. p. 23. 
Class E. p. 25. 
Class F. p. 27. 
Clausldae, 349. 
Clavellinncea, p. 23. 
Clavellinidne, 288, 289. 
Clionacea, 214. 

(45) 



Clionellidae, 45. 
Clionidae, 214. 
Clyinenidae, 28. 
Clynieniidae, 28. 
Columbellacea, f>5. 
olumbellidae, 65. 
Conchae, 238. 
Conchifera, p. 18. 
Conidae, 43. 
Conoidea, 43. 
Conulariidae, 211. 
Corbiculacea, p. 19. 
Corbulidae, 226. 
Oanehiidae. 5. 
Craniadae, e>07. 
Craniidae, 807. 
Orassatellidae, 256. 
Crescidae, 855. 
Crioceras, 35. 
Crioceratidae, 35. 
Crisiadae, 342. 
Crisiidae, 342. 
Crisinidae, 350. 
Cristatellidae, 311. 
Cryptellidae, 153. 
Ctenostomata. p. 29. 
Cyamiidae, 252. 
Cycladae, 240. 
Cyclonassinae, 57a. 
Cyclopborea, 68. 
Cyclophoridae, 68. 
Cyclophorinae, 68b. 
Cyclostomacea, 67. 
Cyclostomata, p. 29. 
Cyclostomea, 67. 
Cyclostomidae, 67. 
Cyclostominae, 67o. 
Cyclotacea, 68. 
Cyclotea, 68. 
Cyclotinae, 68a. 
Cyliehnidae, 175. 
Cylindrellidae, 148. 
Cymbuliacea, 210. 
Cymbuliidae, 210. 
Cyinodoceidae, 216. 
Cynodontidae, 58. 
Cynodontinae, 58a. 
Cypraeacea, 106. 
Cypraeinae, 106a. 
Cypraeidae, 106. 
Cyprinidae, 244". 
Cyrenidae, 240r 
Cyrenoididae, 242. 
Cyrtoceras, 25. 
Cyrtoceratidae, 25. 
Cystiscidae, 50. 
Cytidae, 354. 

Dactylina,. 61. 
Dactylobranchia, p*. 24. 
Davidsonidae, 305. 
Davidsoninae, 305c. 
Dendronotidae, 195. 
Dentaliidae, 217. 
Dibrancbiata, p. 1. 
Dicranobranchia, p. 11. 
Didemnidae, 291, 290a. 
Digitiglossa, p. 9. 



Dimyaria, p. 18. 
Dioeca, p. 4. 
Diphyllidiadae, 192. 
Diphyllidiidae, 192. 
Diplommatinacea, 69. 
Diplommatininae, 69b. 
Discinidae, 308. 
Docoglossa, p. 11. 
Doliacea, 112. 
Doliidae, 112. 
Doliolidae, 296. 
Donacidae, 236. 
Dorididae, 185. 
Doridopsidae, 184. 
Dotoidae, 198. 
Dotonidae, 198. 
Dreissenacea, p. 19. 
Dreissenidae, 243. 
Duplohamata, p. 5. 

Elasmognatha, p. 13. 
Electrinidae, 334. 
Eleidae, 343. 
Eligmidae, 278. 
Eliginus, 278. 
Ellobiinae, 166. 
Elysiadae, 204. 
Elysiidae, 204. 
Emarginulidae, 137. 
Entoconchacea, p. 17. 
Entoconchidae, 207. 
Eolididae, 201. 
Eratoinae, 107b. 
Erycinidae, 251. 
Escharellidae, 321. 
Escharellinidae, 322. 
Escharidae, 325. 
Escharinellidae, 324. 
Eschariporidae, 318. 
Eulimidae, 84. 

Farciminariadae, 331. 
Farciminariidae, 331. 
Fascigeridae, 345. 
Fasciporidae, 346. 
Fasciolariacea, 53. 
Fasciolariidae, 53. 
Fasciolariinae, 53b. 
Fionidae, 202. 
Firolacea, 121. 
Fissurellacea, p. 11. 
Fissurellidae, 136. 
Flustrellariadae, 328. 
Flustrellariidae, 328. 
Flustrellidae, 3271 
Flustridae, 332. 
Flustrinidae, 326. 
Fossari, 81. 
Fossaridae, 81. 
Fusacea, 56, 58. 
Fusinae, 53a. 

Gadiniidae, 168. 
Galeominidae, 254. 
Gasteropoda, p. 4. 
Gastrocbaenidae, 219. 
Gemellariadae, 330-. 
Gemellariidae, 330. 



Geophila, p. 12. 
Glaucidae, 200. 
Glauconomidae, 239. 
Glauconomyadae, 239. 
Glossidae, 245. 
Glossoceras, 27. 
Glycimerides, 224. 
Gomphoceras, 24. 
Gompboeeratidae, 24. 
Goniatitidae, 29. 
Goniatites, 29. 
Goniatitoidea, p. 3. 
Goniodorididae, 187. 
Goniognatha, p. 12. 
Gymnoloemata, p. 27. 
Gymnosoinata, p. 17. 
Gyroceras, 21. 
Gyroceratidae, 21. 

Haliacea, 46. 
Haliidae, 46. 
Ilaliotacea, p. 11. 
Haliotidae, 134. 
Hamiglossa, p. 5. 
Karaites, 37. 
Hamitidae, 37. 
Hamulina, 39. 
Hamulinidae, 39. 
Harpacea, 62. 
Harpidae, 62. 
Helicacea, 150. 
Helicidae, 150. 
Helicinacea, 124. 
Helicinidae, 124. 
Helicoceras, 31. 
Helictopoda, p. 25. 
Hercoceras, 20. 
Hercoceratidae, 20. 
Hermaeidae, 203. 
Heroidae, 196. 
Heteroceras, 31. 
Heteromyaria, p. 21. 
Heteropoda, p. 10. 
Heterosalpinx, 207. 
Hipponicidae, 97. 
Hippothoidae, 329. 
Hippuritidae, 279, 280, 281, 

282, 283. 
Hislopiadae,.339. 
Hislopiidae, 339. 
Holognatha, p. 12. 
Hyalacea, 209. 
Hyalidae, 209. 
llydrobiinae, 78. 
Hydrocaenacea, 122. 
Hydrocaenidae, 122. 
Hyolithidae, 212. 

lanthinidae, 116. 
Imbricariina, 58. 
Imbricariinae, 58b. 
Incrustata or Rigida, p. 27. 
Inarticulata, p. 29. 
Inarticulatafasciculata, p. 29. 
Inarticulata foraminata, p. 29. 
Inarticulata operculata, p. 29. 
Inarticulata tubulata, p. 29. 



Inferobranchia, p. 16. 
Iridinidae, 259. 

Janellidae, 158. 

Koninckinidae. 303. 
Kraussininae, 290d. 

Lacuninae, 82a. 
Larvalia, p. 24. 
Laseidae, 251, 252. 
Ledidae, 265. 
Lepetidae, 141. 
Leptoclinidae, 291. 
Leptonidae, 253. 
Licinea, 67. 
Licineinae, 67a. 
Liraacidae, 155. 
Limacinacea, 208. 
Limacinidae, 208. 
Limapontiadae, 205. 
Liinapontiidae, 205. 
Limidae, 273. 
Limnaeidae, 164. 
Limnophila, p. 13. 
Lingulidae, 309. 
Lingulinae, 309a. 
Lioplaces, 74. 
Lioplacinae, 74a. 
Liotiadae, 129. 
Liotiidae, 129. 
Lithophaga, 237. 
Littorinae, 82. 
Littorinidae, 82. 
Littorininae, 82b. 
Lituites, 22. 
Lituitidae, 22. 
Lophocercidae, 178. 
Lophopodia, p. 27. 
Loliginidae, 9. 
Loligopsidae, 5. 
Lucinacea, p. 20. 
Lucinidae, 249. 
Lyopomata, p. 26. 

Mactracea, 231. 
Mactridae, 231. 
Macluraeacea, p. 11. 
Maclureadae, 135. 
Macluraeidae, Io5. 
Magasinae, 290c. 
Marginellacea, 51. 
Marginellidae, 51. 
IMarseniidae, 108. 
Megathyrinae, 290f. 
Melaniae, 88. 
Melaniidae, 88. 
Melaniinae, 88a. 
Melanopidae, 87. 
Melatomidae, 45. 
Melongenidae, .55. 
Mesodesmidae, 23. 
Mesodesmides, 232. 
Metarrhiptae, p. 21. 
Mitracea, 54. 
Mitridae, 54. 
Molluscoidea, p. 23. 
Monomyaria, p. 21. 



Murieea, 64. 
Muricidae, 64. 
Muricinae, 64a. 
Mutelidae, 259. 
Myacea, p. 18. 
Myaires, 225, 226. 
Mycetopodidae, 260. 
Muelleracea, p. 20. 
Muelleriidae, 262. 
Myidae, 225. 
Myochamidae. 229. 
Myopsidae, p. 2. 
Myriozoidae, 344. 
Mytilidae, 268. 

Naiades, p. 20. 
Nassacea, 57. 
Nassidae, 57. 
Nassininae, 67b. 
Naticacea, 100. 
Naticidae, 110. 
Nautilidae, 19. 
Nautiloidae, p. 2. 
Nautilus, 19. 
Neptunina, 56. 
Neritacea, p. 10. 
Neritidao, 126. 
Neritinidae, 126. 
Neritopsidae, 100. 
Nothoceras, 16. 
Nothoceratidae, 16. 
Nuculidae, 264. 
Nudibranchiata, p. 15. 

Obolinae, 309b. 
Octopoda, p. 1. 
0. littorales, p. 1. 
0. pelagici, p. 1. 
Octopodidae, 2. 
Odontoglossa, p. 5. 
Oigopsidae, p. 1. 
Oleacinidae, 144. 
Olivacea, 61. 
Olivellina, 61. 
Olivellinae, 61b. 
Olividae, 61. 
Olivinae, 61a. 
Ommastrephidae, 8. 
Onchidiidae, 160. 
Onchidorididae, 186. 
Onustidae, 101. 
Onychoteuthidae, 7. 
Opisthobranchiata, p. 14. 
Order I, p. 1. 
! Order II, p. 2. 
Order III, p. 4. 
Order IV, p. 10. 
Order V, p. 10. 
Order VI, p. 11. 
Order VII, p. 12. 
Order VIII, p. 12. 
Order IX, p. 14. 
Order X, p. 15. 
Order XI, p. 17. 
Order XII, p. 17. 
Order XIII, p. 17. 
Order XIV, p. 18. 
Order XV, p. 21. 



Order XVI, p. 21. 
Order XVII, p. 21. 
Order XVIII, p. 22. 
Order XIX, p. 23. 
Order XX, p. 24. 
Order XXI, p. 24. 
Order XXII, p. 24. 
Order XXIII, p. 25. 
Order XXIV, p. 26. 
Order XXV, p. 27. 
Order XXVI, p. 27. 
Order XXVII. p. 30. 
Orthalicea, 147. 
Orthalicidae, 147. 
Orthoceras, 26. 
Orthoceratidae, 2fi. 
Osteodesmidae, 228, 
Ostreidae, 277. 
Ostracea, 277. 
Ostracea, p. 22. 
Otinidae, 165. 
Otininae, 165. 

Pachyclieili, 86. 
Paludicellea, p. 27. 
Paludicellidae, 315. 
Paludorainae, 8Sc. 
Pandoridae, 227. 
Parmacellidae, 154. 
Patellidae, 140. 
Pectinatellidae, 310. 
Pectinacea, p. 21. 
Pectinibranchiata, p. 4. 
Pectinidae, 274. 
Pedicellinea, p. 27. 
Fedicellinidae, 313. 
Pediculariacea, 104. 
Pediculariidae, 104. 
Pelonaeidae, 284. 
Pellibranchiata, p. 16. 
Pentamerinae, 304a. 
Perophoracea, p. 23. 
Perophoridae, 288. 
Petricolidae, 237. 
Petrophila, p. 14. 
Philinidae, 170. 
Philomycenidae, 152. 
Philomycidae, 152. 
Philonexidae, 3. 
Pholadacea, p. 18. 
Pholadidae, 221. 
Pholadomyadae, 230. 
Pholadornyidae, 230. 
Photina, 56. 
Photinae, 56a. 
Phragmoeeras, 23. 
Phragmoceratidae, 23. 
Phylactolffiinata, p. 27. 
Phyllidiadae, 191. 
Phyllidiidae, 191. 
Phyllirrhoidae, 206. 
Physidae, 162. 
Pinnidae, 269. 
Pisidiidae, 241. 
Placunidae, 275. 
Planaxes, 91. 
Planaxidae, 91. 
Platidiinae, 290e. 



48 



Pleurobranchidae, 183. 
Pleurobranchiidae, 183. 
Pleurotouiacea, 44. 
Pleurotouiariacea, p. 11. 
Pleurotoinaridae, 132. 
Pleurotomariidae, 132. 
Pleurotomidae, 44. 
Pluinatellidae, 312. 
Pneurnodermacea, 215. 
Pneumodermonidae, 215. 
Podophthalma, p. 10. 
Polybranchia, p. 16. 
Polyceradae, 188. 
Polyceridae, 188. 
Polyclinidae, 292. 
Polyclininae, 292, 293. 
Polyplacophora, p. 12. 
Polyzoa, p. 27. 
Pomatiaoea, 66. 
Pomatiidae, 66. 
Poruatiopsidae, 77. 
Pomatiopsinae, 77. 
Porambonitidae, 305. 
Porambonitinae, 305a. 
Porellidae, 320. 
Porellinidae, 319. 
Poridinae, 323. 
Potamides, 90. 
Potamidinae, 90b. 
Proboscidifera, p. 9. 
Proctonotidae, 199. 
Productidae, 306. 
Proserpinacea, 125. 
Proserpinidae, 125. 
Prosopocephala, p. 17. 
Proteobranchia, p. 11. 
Psammobidae, 235. 
Psamrnobiidae, 235. 
Pseudobranchia, p. 10. 
Ptenoglossa, p. 10. 
Pteriidae, 270. 
Pterocymodoceidae, 216. 
Pteropoda, p. 17. 
Pterotrachaeidae, 121. 
Ptychatractidae, 63. 
Ptychoceras, 38. 
Ptychooeratidae, 38. 
Pupacea, 149. 
Pupidae, 149. 
Pupinea, 69. 
Pupimdae, 69. 
Pupininae, 69a. 
Pulmonifera, p. 12. 
Puluaonata, p. 12. 
Purpuracea, 64. 
Purpurinae, 64b. 
Pustulariinae, 106b. 
Pygobranchia, p. 15. 
Pyratuidellidae, 83. 
Pyrosomatidae, 295. 
Pyrosomidae, 295. 
Pyrulidae, 111. 

Radicellata, p. 28. 
Eadicellata articulata, p. 28. 
Radicellata flexilia, p. 28. 
Radiolitidae, 280. 
Radulidae, 272. 



Ranellacea, 114. 
Ranellidae, 114. 
Rhabodpleura, 356. 
Rhabdopleurae, p. 30. 
Rhabdopleuridae, 356. 
llhachiglossa, p. 4. 
Rhiphidoglossa, p. 10. 
Rhodosoma, 287a. 
Rhodosomidae, 287a. 
Rhynchonellidae, 304. 
Rhynchonellinae, 304b. 
Ringiculidae, 172. 
Rissoellidae, 76. 
Rissoidae, 78. 
Rissoinae, 78b. 
Rissoininae, 78o. 
Rostrifera, p. 6. 
Rotelladae, 127. 
Rotellidae, 127. 
Rudista, p. 22. 
Runcinadae, 180. 
Runciuidae, 180. 

Saccobranchia, p. 23. 
Salicornariadae, 336. 
Salicornariidae, 336. 
Salpidae, 297. 
Saxicavidae, 224. 
Scalariadae, 118. 
Scaiariidae, 118. 
Scaphites, 34. 
Scaphitidae, 34. 
Scissurellidae, 133. 
Scrupariadae, 335. 
Scrupariidae, 335. 
Scyllaeidae, 194. 
Selenariadae, 316. 
Selenariidae, 316. 
Sepiidae, 11. 
Sepiolidae, 10. 
Sepiophora, p. 1. 
Seraphyinae, 102b. 
Sigillinidae, 290. 
Siphonariidae, 167. 
Skeneidae, 79. 
Skeneinae, 79. 
Sociales, p. 23. 
Solariidae, 117. 
Solecurtidae, 223. 
Solernyacea, p. 20. 
Solemyadae, 255. 
Solemyidae, 255. 
Solenacea, p. 18. 
Solenacees, 222, 223. 
Solenidae, 222. 
Solenoconchse, p. 17. 
Solitaria, p. 23. 
Sparsidae, 348. 
Spiriferidae, 301, 302. 
Spirulidae, 13. 
Spondylidae, 272. 
Steginoporidae, 317. 
Stoastoinidae, 123. 
Storaatellidae, 131. 
Strepomatidae, 8fi. 
Streptaxidae, 145. 
Strigatellacea, 60. 
Stringocephalinae, 290b. 



Strombidae, 102. 
Strombinae, 102a. 
Strophomenidae, 305. 
Strophomeninae, 305b. 
Stylii'eridae, 85. 
Subnuda, p. 13. 
Succinea, 157. 
Succinidae, 157. 
Sycotypidae, 111. 
Synoeoiidae, 293. 

Taeniobranchia, p. 24. 
Taenioglossa, p. 6. 
Tectibranchiata, p. 14. 
Tellinidae, 234. 
Tenagodidae, 94. 
Terebracea, 47. 
Terebratulidae, 299. 
Terebratulinae, 299a. 
Terebridae, 47. 
Teredinidae, 220. 
Teredidae, 220. 
Testacellea, 144, 146. 
Testacellidae, 146. 
Tethyadae, 197. 
Tethyidae, 197. 
Tetrabranchiata, p. 2. 
Thalassophila, p. 14. 
Thecideidae, 300. 
Thecidiidae, 300. 
Thecosomata, p. 17. 
Thiarae, 88. 
Tiarinae, 88b. 
Togata, p. 13. 
Toxoceras, 40. 
Toxoceratidae, 40. 
Toxoglossa, p. 4. 
Trichotropidae, 96. 
Tridacnidae, 267. 
Tridacnides, 267. 
Trigonea, 263. 
Trigoniacea, p. 21. 
Trigoniidae, 263. 
Triopidae, 189. 
Tritoniacea, 115. 
Tritoniadae, 193. 
Tritonidae, 115. 
Tritoniidae, 193. 
Triviacea, 107. 
Triviidae, 107. 
Triviinae, 107a. 
Trochacea, p. 10. 
Trochidae, 130. 
Trochoceras, 18. 
Trochoceratidae, 18. 
Truncatellacea, 71. 
Truncatellidae, 71. 
Tubigeridae, 347. 
Tunicata, p. 2-'J. 
Turbinellidae, f-9. 
Turbinidae, 128. 
Turridae, 60. 
Turrilites, 31. 
Turrilitidae, 31. 
Turritellae, 95. 
Turritellidae, 95. 
Tylodinadae, 181. 
Tjlodinidae, 181. 



49 



Typioa, p. 4. 

Umbrelladae, 182. 
Umbrellidae, 182. 
Ungulinidae, 250. 
Unionidae, 258. 
Urnatellea, p. 27. 
Urnatellidae, 314. 

Vaginulidae, 159. 
Valvatae, 73. 
Valvatidae, 73. 
Vasidae, 59. 



Vasina, 58. 
Velutinidae, 109. 
Veneracea, p. 19. 
Veneridae, 2a8. 
Veniliidae, 244. 
Vermetacea, 93, 94. 
Vermetidae, 93. 
Veronicellidae, 159. 
Vesiculariadae, 341. 
Vesiculariidae, 341. 
Vitrinea, 151. 
Vitrinidae, 151. 



Vivipari, 74. 
Viviparidae, 74. 
Viviparinae, 74b. 
Volutacea, 52. 
Volutidae, 52. 
Volutina, 52. 
Volutinae, 52b. 
Volutomitrina, 52. 
Volutomitrinae, 52a. 
Vulsellidae, 271. 

Yetina, 52.